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Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
Technical Paper

GCQ - A Universal Gaseous Fuel Composition and Quality Sensor

Studies of the physical and combustion properties of saturated hydrocarbon gaseous fuels have shown that there is a remarkable correlation between these properties and the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel molecules. If the correlation is limited to the four most prevalent constituents of natural gas fuels, i.e., methane (CH4), ethane (C2 H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), it appears that the flow and combustion characteristics of the pure gases and mixtures of these same gases can be predicted from the H/C ratio alone, independent of the various proportions of the gases. It was concluded that if the H/C ratio of a mixture of gases could be determined by means of an on-line dynamic sensor, important engine and fuel management parameters, such as octane no., methane no., density, stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, etc. could be determined and compensated for by an electronic control unit.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel Injection for Dual Fuel Diesel Methane

An electronic fuel injection system for diesel engines has been adapted for dual fuel applications. The simplified and commercially practical system capitalizes on using standardized hardware and software modified for the dual fuel conversion kit Using the conventional diesel pump for pilot injection, electronic injectors provide timed pulses of gas for each cylinder. The system has been successfully applied to both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions of the Mercedes OM-352 diesel engine and has been placed in service in transit bus applications. Performance data shows over 90% displacement of diesel fuel with the same power and fuel economy as the base diesel engine. Initial reports from the field indicate excellent performance and drivability as well as smoke-free exhaust when in the dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Methods and Results from the Development of a 2600 Bar Diesel Fuel Injection System

An ultrahigh injection pressure, common rail fuel injection system was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The result was a system suitable for high-power density diesel engine applications. The main advantages of the concept are a very short injection duration capability, high injection pressure independent of engine speed, a simplified electronic control valve, and good packaging flexibility. Two prototype injectors were developed. Tests were performed on an injector flow bench and in a single cylinder research engine. The first prototype delivered 320 mm3 within 2.5 milliseconds with a 2600 bar peak injection pressure. A conventional minisac nozzle was used. The second prototype employed a specially designed pintle nozzle producing a near-zero cone angle liquid jet impinging on a 9-mm cylindrical target centered on the piston bowl crown (OSKA-S system). The second prototype had the capability to deliver 316mm3 in 0.97ms.