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Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

1998-08-11
981930
Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Lean-Burn 4.3 Liter Natural Gas Engine

1995-08-01
951939
The need for a natural gas conversion kit for heavy-duty engines which provides equivalent gasoline performance as well as acceptable exhaust emissions has prompted the use of turbocharged lean-burn engine technology. Turbocharged lean-burn strategy allows operation which meets current heavy-duty emission requirements without the need for a catalytic converter. To insure proper fuel distribution during lean-burn operation, the system includes multi-point sequential fuel injection, fully mapped lambda control, deceleration fuel cut-off, part load cylinder deactivation, and fuel charge stratification. This paper documents the design and development of a General Motors turbocharged, sequential fuel injected, leanburn natural gas engine based on the 4.3L truck engine.
Technical Paper

Electronic Direct Fuel Injection System Applied to an 1100cc Two-Stroke Personal Watercraft Engine

1998-02-23
980756
Direct injection has been considered the most effective approach to overcome the inherent short-circuiting of fuel in a two-stroke engine. A practical application of this technology on an 1100cc personal watercraft (PWC) engine is described. The experimental results show a drastic improvement in the engine emissions and fuel economy while maintaining good output performance and drive-ability of the PWC tested. The all-electronic, direct fuel injection engine has demonstrated a 76.3% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and 43.03 g/kW-h HC plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. This HC + NOx level meets the emission standards applicable to the 2006 model year set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for new gasoline spark-ignition marine engines. Finally some considerations on extending the technology to include combustion control in the areas of both air and spark management, are recommended.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines - Stoichiometric, Carbureted and Spark Ignited to Lean Burn, Fuel Injected and Micro-Pilot

1997-08-06
972665
Natural gas is a low cost, abundant and clean burning fuel. Current internal combustion engines can be readily adapted to use natural gas fuel either in conjunction with conventional liquid fuels or as dedicated systems. Use of modern electronic controls allows consideration of new engine management strategies that are not practical or even possible with mechanical systems. The preferred approach is pre-mixed lean burn with cylinder-by-cylinder fuel injection and full time control of optimized air/fuel ratio and ignition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection on Diesel Combustion

1988-02-01
880299
Additional data has been analyzed on the effect of engine size on thermal efficiency. The comparison has been expanded to show the trends separately for engines developed by several different manufacturers. The data confirm the conclusion that engines below 2.0 liters per cylinder seem to deteriorate in fuel economy faster than would have been predicted from the behavior of larger engines. It is postulated that such deterioration results from a combination of less than optimum fuel spray, wall wetting, and perhaps a greater heat transfer loss than was anticipated. The paper focuses on engines in the size range under two liters per cylinder and addresses some of the problems to be resolved. Means for generating and controlling fuel spray and injection rate shape are presented along with experimental data on fuel sprays and engine combustion.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

Optimized E.F.I. for Natural Gas Fueled Engines

1991-08-01
911650
Increasing emphasis on natural gas as a clean, economical, and abundant fuel, encourages the search for the optimum approach to management of fuel, air and combustion to achieve the best results in power, fuel economy and low exhaust emissions. Electronic injection of fuel directly into the throttle body, intake ports or directly into the cylinder offers important advantages over carburetion or mixing valves. This is particularly true in the case of installations in which the gas supply is available at several atmospheres pressure above maximum intake manifold pressure. The use of choked-flow pulse- width-modulated electronic injectors offers precision control over the engine operating range with a wide variety of options for both stoichiometric and lean bum applications. A complete system utilizing commercially available components together with the application, calibration and engine mapping techniques is described.
Technical Paper

Extending Lean Limit with Mass-Timed Compression Ignition Using a Catalytic Plasma Torch

1992-08-01
921556
Research on the Catalytic Plasma Torch (CPT) ignition system was conducted this last year at BKM, Inc. in San Diego. The results showed that under certain conditions CPT can not only time ignition properly, but also extend the lean stability limit. This concept is based upon compression ignition of the charge in the CPT's integral pre-chamber. Compression ignition is induced by timed catalytic reduction of the pre-chamber's activation energy. This produces almost instantaneous combustion in the pre-chamber and is divided into multiple high velocity torches to rapidly ignite the main chamber charge. The timing of the ignition event is based on the location of the heated catalyst in the pre-chamber and the mass of the charge inducted into the cylinder. The base timing curve can be modified via current control which effects the catalyst activity. Dynamic modification of the timing event is accomplished by using the catalyst as an in-cylinder hot wire anemometer.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel Injection for Dual Fuel Diesel Methane

1989-08-01
891652
An electronic fuel injection system for diesel engines has been adapted for dual fuel applications. The simplified and commercially practical system capitalizes on using standardized hardware and software modified for the dual fuel conversion kit Using the conventional diesel pump for pilot injection, electronic injectors provide timed pulses of gas for each cylinder. The system has been successfully applied to both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions of the Mercedes OM-352 diesel engine and has been placed in service in transit bus applications. Performance data shows over 90% displacement of diesel fuel with the same power and fuel economy as the base diesel engine. Initial reports from the field indicate excellent performance and drivability as well as smoke-free exhaust when in the dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Direct Digital Control of Electronic Unit Injectors

1984-02-01
840273
A new type of diesel fuel injection uses a simple, medium-pressure, common-rail system with pressure intensifier and accumulator type unit injectors with digital electronic control to achieve high performance at low cost. The desirable features of high injection pressures with quantity and timing controlled directly by microprocessor are attained with a simple unique system. Data are presented on performance, efficiency, emissions, and relative cost. It is concluded that electronically controlled high pressure injection offers a practical and economical solution for efficient combustion in a diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel X-Tau Parameter Estimation Using Short Time Fourier Transform

2008-04-14
2008-01-1305
This paper presents a Short Time Fourier Transform based algorithm to identify unknown parameters in fuel dynamics system during engine cold start and warm-up. A first order system is used to model the fuel dynamics in a port fuel injection engine. The feed forward transient fuel compensation controller is designed based on the identified model. Experiments are designed and implemented to verify the proposed algorithm. Different experiment settings are compared.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques to Support Fuel Path Control in Medium Duty Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0332
In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D CPF Model to Simulate Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-1283
A quasi-steady 1-dimensional computer model of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) capable of simulating active regeneration of the CPF via diesel fuel injection upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or other means to increase the exhaust gas temperature has been developed. This model is capable of predicting gaseous species concentrations (HC's, CO, NO and NO2) and exhaust gas temperatures within and after the CPF, for given input values of gaseous species and PM concentrations before the CPF and other inlet variables such as time-varying temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the CPF and volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0925
Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Technical Paper

Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling

2016-04-05
2016-01-0576
A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
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