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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

1998-08-11
981930
Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Lean-Burn 4.3 Liter Natural Gas Engine

1995-08-01
951939
The need for a natural gas conversion kit for heavy-duty engines which provides equivalent gasoline performance as well as acceptable exhaust emissions has prompted the use of turbocharged lean-burn engine technology. Turbocharged lean-burn strategy allows operation which meets current heavy-duty emission requirements without the need for a catalytic converter. To insure proper fuel distribution during lean-burn operation, the system includes multi-point sequential fuel injection, fully mapped lambda control, deceleration fuel cut-off, part load cylinder deactivation, and fuel charge stratification. This paper documents the design and development of a General Motors turbocharged, sequential fuel injected, leanburn natural gas engine based on the 4.3L truck engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Electronic Direct Fuel Injection System Applied to an 1100cc Two-Stroke Personal Watercraft Engine

1998-02-23
980756
Direct injection has been considered the most effective approach to overcome the inherent short-circuiting of fuel in a two-stroke engine. A practical application of this technology on an 1100cc personal watercraft (PWC) engine is described. The experimental results show a drastic improvement in the engine emissions and fuel economy while maintaining good output performance and drive-ability of the PWC tested. The all-electronic, direct fuel injection engine has demonstrated a 76.3% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and 43.03 g/kW-h HC plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. This HC + NOx level meets the emission standards applicable to the 2006 model year set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for new gasoline spark-ignition marine engines. Finally some considerations on extending the technology to include combustion control in the areas of both air and spark management, are recommended.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines - Stoichiometric, Carbureted and Spark Ignited to Lean Burn, Fuel Injected and Micro-Pilot

1997-08-06
972665
Natural gas is a low cost, abundant and clean burning fuel. Current internal combustion engines can be readily adapted to use natural gas fuel either in conjunction with conventional liquid fuels or as dedicated systems. Use of modern electronic controls allows consideration of new engine management strategies that are not practical or even possible with mechanical systems. The preferred approach is pre-mixed lean burn with cylinder-by-cylinder fuel injection and full time control of optimized air/fuel ratio and ignition.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Improve Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Dual-Fuel Pilot Ignited Natural Gas Engines

1997-05-01
971712
Dual-fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines have several intrinsic advantages relative to spark ignited; mainly higher thermal efficiency and lower conversion costs. The major drawback is associated with light loads. This paper discusses objectives, approaches, methods and results of the development of strategies which overcome the drawbacks and enhance the advantages. Development of a pilot fuel injection system, having a delivery of only 1 mm3 at a duration of 0.6 ms, was described in a previous paper. This paper concentrates on the results of strategies to reduce unburned methane in the exhaust and to increase the substitution of gas at light loads through skip-fire, by-passing boost air and exhaust gas recirculation techniques. Engine tests proved that with these strategies, diesel fuel replacement of more than 95% over the entire engine operating map, including idle, can be achieved and current and anticipated future emission standards satisfied.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

1991-02-01
910745
Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection on Diesel Combustion

1988-02-01
880299
Additional data has been analyzed on the effect of engine size on thermal efficiency. The comparison has been expanded to show the trends separately for engines developed by several different manufacturers. The data confirm the conclusion that engines below 2.0 liters per cylinder seem to deteriorate in fuel economy faster than would have been predicted from the behavior of larger engines. It is postulated that such deterioration results from a combination of less than optimum fuel spray, wall wetting, and perhaps a greater heat transfer loss than was anticipated. The paper focuses on engines in the size range under two liters per cylinder and addresses some of the problems to be resolved. Means for generating and controlling fuel spray and injection rate shape are presented along with experimental data on fuel sprays and engine combustion.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

1988-02-01
880298
The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

HEUI - A New Direction for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1993-03-01
930270
Caterpillar Inc. has developed a new diesel engine fuel system, powered by hydraulics and controlled electronically. This Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, (HEUI), requires no mechanical actuating or mechanical control devices, and offers many advantages over conventional fuel injection systems. Inherent features of the HEUI Fuel System include injection pressure control independent of engine load or speed, totally flexible injection timing, and full electronic control of injection parameters. Packaging the HEUI Fuel System on an engine is simple, as the injector is compact and available in a variety of configurations. The hydraulic actuating circuit is straightforward, using lubricating oil from the engine sump. Hydraulic lines may be internal to the engine or external. This paper describes the Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System, its operating features, performance advantages, and application to diesel engines.
Technical Paper

GCQ - A Universal Gaseous Fuel Composition and Quality Sensor

1993-10-01
932824
Studies of the physical and combustion properties of saturated hydrocarbon gaseous fuels have shown that there is a remarkable correlation between these properties and the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel molecules. If the correlation is limited to the four most prevalent constituents of natural gas fuels, i.e., methane (CH4), ethane (C2 H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), it appears that the flow and combustion characteristics of the pure gases and mixtures of these same gases can be predicted from the H/C ratio alone, independent of the various proportions of the gases. It was concluded that if the H/C ratio of a mixture of gases could be determined by means of an on-line dynamic sensor, important engine and fuel management parameters, such as octane no., methane no., density, stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, etc. could be determined and compensated for by an electronic control unit.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

1993-09-01
932404
Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
Technical Paper

Optimized E.F.I. for Natural Gas Fueled Engines

1991-08-01
911650
Increasing emphasis on natural gas as a clean, economical, and abundant fuel, encourages the search for the optimum approach to management of fuel, air and combustion to achieve the best results in power, fuel economy and low exhaust emissions. Electronic injection of fuel directly into the throttle body, intake ports or directly into the cylinder offers important advantages over carburetion or mixing valves. This is particularly true in the case of installations in which the gas supply is available at several atmospheres pressure above maximum intake manifold pressure. The use of choked-flow pulse- width-modulated electronic injectors offers precision control over the engine operating range with a wide variety of options for both stoichiometric and lean bum applications. A complete system utilizing commercially available components together with the application, calibration and engine mapping techniques is described.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel Injection for Dual Fuel Diesel Methane

1989-08-01
891652
An electronic fuel injection system for diesel engines has been adapted for dual fuel applications. The simplified and commercially practical system capitalizes on using standardized hardware and software modified for the dual fuel conversion kit Using the conventional diesel pump for pilot injection, electronic injectors provide timed pulses of gas for each cylinder. The system has been successfully applied to both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions of the Mercedes OM-352 diesel engine and has been placed in service in transit bus applications. Performance data shows over 90% displacement of diesel fuel with the same power and fuel economy as the base diesel engine. Initial reports from the field indicate excellent performance and drivability as well as smoke-free exhaust when in the dual fuel mode.
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