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Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Forging Conditions on the Flow Behavior and Microstructure of a Medium Carbon Microalloyed Forging Steel

1994-03-01
940787
Forging simulations with a 1522 steel microalloyed by additions of 0.25% Mo, 0.13% V and 0.01% Ti were performed on a laboratory thermomechanical processing simulator. The forging conditions included a strain rate of 22s-1, 50% strain, and temperatures in the range from 1200°C to 950°C. The true stress was found to increase with decreasing deformation temperature for all values of instantaneous true strain. The maximum flow stress increased two-fold as deformation temperature decreased from 1200°C to 950°C, and the recrystallized austenite grain size decreased by a factor of two for this same decrease in temperature. Microstructures evolve from bainitic/ferritic at a cooling rate of 1.4°C/s, to fully martensitic at 16.8°C/s, independent of deformation temperature. Room temperature hardnesses depended primarily on cooling rate and were essentially independent of deformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Wood-to-Wheels: A Multidisciplinary Research Initiative in Sustainable Transportation Utilizing Fuels and Co-Products from Forest Resources

2008-10-20
2008-21-0026
Michigan Technological University has established a broad-based university-wide research initiative, termed Wood-to-Wheels (W2W), to develop and evaluate improved technologies for growing, harvesting, converting, and using woody biomass in renewable transportation fuel applications. The W2W program bridges the entire biomass development-production-consumption life cycle with research in areas including forest resources, bioprocessing, engine/vehicle systems, and sustainable decisions. The W2W chain establishes a closed cycle of carbon between the atmosphere, woody biomass, fuels, and vehicular systems that can reduce the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. This paper will summarize the activities associated with the Wood-to-Wheels initiative and describe challenges and the potential benefits that are achievable.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar’s Autonomous Journey - The Argument for Autonomy

2016-09-27
2016-01-8005
Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continue to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

2017-03-28
2017-01-0650
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Technical Paper

Solutions to the Clean Snowmobile Challenge - What Works?

2005-10-24
2005-01-3681
The Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2004 (CSC 2004) was held at Michigan Technological University in Houghton, Michigan, from March 15 - 20, 2004. The Clean Snowmobile Challenge has been a competition in the SAE Collegiate Design Series since 2000, and began in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, as a response to rising concerns about snowmobiling in environmentally-sensitive areas. Teams from fifteen universities competed in CSC 2004. The winning snowmobile (sled) was developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and featured a four-stroke engine with electronic fuel injection (EFI), a two-stage tuned muffler, and catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. A hybrid-electric design was used to increase the snowmobile's powertrain output and improve acceleration. [8] Teams should be competitive in all events to gain enough points to win the competition.
Technical Paper

Application of a Self-Adjusting Audible Warning Device as a Backup Alarm for Mobile Earthmoving Equipment

2005-11-01
2005-01-3507
Most pieces of mobile equipment (machines) produce an audible signal to indicate movement in the rearward direction. This signal is intended to alert nearby personnel of the potential danger associated with the machine moving in a direction where the operator may not be able to see people or objects in the machine path. Anyone who has been on or near a construction site recognizes the familiar “beep…beep…beep…” of this signal as the backup alarm. To be effective, the backup alarm must be discernible, timely, and relevant to those people where a reaction is intended. As machine designers respond to various sound directives for reducing sound emissions (including the backup alarm), the performance of the backup alarm is receiving special attention. An emerging solution is an alarm capable of sensing ambient sounds and producing an audible signal proportional to the sensed sound levels-a self-adjusting backup alarm.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Engineering Education through University Competition-Based Events

2006-11-13
2006-32-0049
Engineering education at the University level is enhanced by competition-based projects. The SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge is a prime example of how competition-based engineering education benefits the small engines industry and improves the engineering talent pool of the nation in general. For the past several decades, SAE has encouraged young engineers to compete in designing off road vehicles (Baja SAE ®), small race cars (Formula SAE ®), remote control airplanes (Aero Design ®), high mileage vehicles (Supermileage ®) and robots (Walking Robot ®). Now a new competition, the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge ™ (CSC), based on designing a cleaner and quieter snowmobile has led to a new path for young engineers to explore the challenges of designing engines that emit less pollution and noise. The paper will summarize the results of the most recent Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2006 and document the successes of the past seven years of the Challenge.
Technical Paper

Initiating a Values Based Culture at Track-Type Tractors Division of Caterpillar Inc.

1999-03-01
1999-01-0250
During the early 1990s, the Track-Type Tractors Division (TTTD) of Caterpillar Inc. experienced several challenges. The Division faced increasing global competition in the midst of an economic recession. Although intense plant modernization and reorganization occurred in the five previous years, the business unit was not profitable. In 1993, Track-Type Tractors Division instituted its solution -- a change in its culture. Previously, the culture hindered the division’s ability to move forward. This was revealed in a 1992 review detailing the major obstacles inhibiting management from achieving divisional goals. The division leaders recognized that a change in business philosophy, as opposed to further plant modernization, was required to achieve production goals and stay globally competitive.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Life-Cycle Costs and Environmental Profile of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

2000-04-26
2000-01-1487
The use of a soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) has potential advantages over the use of a conventional petroleum diesel fuel including: Reduced dependence on foreign petroleum Lowering of greenhouse gas emissions Less air pollution and related public health risks in urban areas A life cycle study performed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy and Ecobalance (completed in May 1998) helped to quantify the environmental benefits of the “cradle-to-grave” production and use of biodiesel. The study showed, for example, that substituting 100% biodiesel for petroleum diesel in urban buses reduced the life cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 78%. The study also pointed out some trade-offs of using biodiesel including increased life cycle hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control with Electronic Throttle Control (ETC)

2003-10-27
2003-01-3280
This paper analyzes the control of the series-parallel powersplit used in the 2001 Michigan Tech FutureTruck. An electronic throttle controller is implemented and a new control algorithm is proposed and tested. A vehicle simulation has been created in MATLAB and the control algorithm implemented within the simulation. A program written in C has also been created that implements the control algorithm in the test vehicle. The results from both the simulation and test vehicle are presented and discussed and show a 15% increase in fuel economy. With the increase in fuel economy, and through the use of the original exhaust after treatment, lower emissions are also expected.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Human Response From Vehicle Performance Characteristics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-05-07
2002-01-1570
This study investigates a methodology in which the general public's subjective interpretation of vehicle handling and performance can be predicted. Several vehicle handling measurements were acquired, and associated metrics calculated, in a controlled setting. Human evaluators were then asked to drive and evaluate each vehicle in a winter driving school setting. Using the acquired data, multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were used to create and refine mathematical models of human subjective responses. It is shown that artificial neural networks, which have been trained with the sets of objective and subjective data, are both more accurate and more robust than multiple linear regression models created from the same data.
Technical Paper

Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA), Tri-Correlation (TriC), and Misfire Detection

2005-04-11
2005-01-0647
In this paper, two correlations, Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA) and Tri-Correlation (TriC), are introduced and discussed. The WSMA is simpler than the conventional autocorrelation. WSMA uses less data points to obtain useful signal content at desired frequencies. The computational requirement is therefore reduced compared to the conventional autocorrelation. The simplified TriC provides improved signal to noise separation capability than WSMA does while still requiring reduced computational effort compared to the standard autocorrelation. Very often, computation resource limitation exists for real-time applications. Therefore, the WSMA and TriC offer more opportunities for real-time monitor and feedback control applications in the frequency domain due to their high efficiencies. As an example, applications in internal combustion (IC) engine misfire detection are presented. Simulation and vehicle test results are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain Rate on the Sheet Tensile Properties and Formability of Ferritic Stainless Steels

2003-03-03
2003-01-0526
High strain rate sheet tensile tests (up to 300s-1) and Ohio State University (OSU) formability tests (up to an estimated strain rate of 10s-1) were performed to examine the effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties and formability of five ferritic stainless steels: HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 409 (HP-10 409), ULTRA FORM® 409 (UF 409), HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 439 (HP-10 439), two thicknesses of 18 Cr-Cb™ stainless steel, all supplied by AK Steel, and Duracorr®, a ferrite-tempered martensite dual-phase stainless steel supplied by Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Tensile results show that increasing strain rate resulted in increases in yield stress, flow stress, and stress at instability for all alloys tested. In addition, increases in uniform and total elongation were also found for each of the five alloys.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

2012-04-16
2012-01-0162
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
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