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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coating Microstructure on the Fatigue Properties of Zinc Coated Sheet Steels

1998-02-23
980955
The influence of coatings on fatigue behavior has been examined for the following commercially produced sheet steels: uncoated titanium stabilized interstitial-free (IF); electrogalvanized titanium stabilized IF; hot-dip galvanized aluminum killed, drawing quality (AKDQ); and galvannealed AKDQ. Fully reversed bending fatigue tests were conducted at ambient temperature on Krouse-type flexural fatigue machines. A dependence of crack development was observed and correlated to the microstructure and properties of the different coatings. Furthermore, a functional design relationship for each material was determined through stress-life analysis. The experimentally determined fatigue properties were compared to conventional estimates based on tensile properties which ignore coating effects. The results of this work suggest that ductile coatings may enhance fatigue resistance, while brittle coatings may reduce fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

1995-02-01
950212
The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Effects of Subzero Treatments on the Bending Fatigue Performance of Carburized SAE-4320 and SAE-9310 Steels

1996-02-01
960313
The effects of subzero treatments on the bending fatigue performance of carburized gear steels were investigated by cantilever bending fatigue testing. Specimens were machined from SAE-4320 and SAE-9310 bar stock steel, gas-carburized, quenched, tempered at 175°C, subzero cooled to -73°C and -196°C, and tempered at 175°C. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray diffraction for residual stress and retained austenite contents, microhardness testing, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. Refrigeration treatments caused additional transformation of retained austenite and increased surface hardness and compressive residual stresses. Bending fatigue endurance limits for the SAE-4320 specimens were determined to be 1310 MPa for the as-carburized condition, 1170 MPa for the -73°C condition, and 1280 MPa for the -196°C condition.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Reheat Treatments on Fatigue and Fracture of Carburized Steels

1994-03-01
940788
The effects of austenite grain size on the bending fatigue crack initiation and fatigue performance of gas carburized, modified 4320 steels were studied. The steels were identical in composition except for phosphorus concentration which ranged between 0.005 and 0.031 wt%. Following the carburizing cycle, specimens were subjected to single and triple reheat treatments of 820°C for 30 minutes to refine the austenite grain structure, and oil quenched and tempered at 150°C. Specimens subjected to bending fatigue were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and grain size, X-ray analysis for retained austenite and residual stress measurements, and scanning electron microscopy for examination of fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The surface austenite grain size ranged from 15 μm in the as-carburized condition to 6 and 4 μm diameter grain size for the single and triple reheat conditions, respectively.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Performance of Carburized 4320 Steel

1993-03-01
930963
The bending fatigue performance of four heats of carburized, commercially-produced SAE 4320 steel was evaluated. Simulated gear tooth in bending (SGTB) cantilever beam specimens from each heat were identically carburized and fatigue tested in the direct quenched condition after carburizing. The microstructure and fracture surfaces of all specimens were characterized with light and electron microscopy. The four direct quenched sets of specimens performed similarly in low cycle fatigue. Endurance limits among the direct quenched specimens ranged between 1100 and 1170 MPa (160 and 170 ksi) and intergranular cracking dominated fatigue crack initiation. An additional set of specimens from one of the heats was reheated after carburizing. The fatigue performance of the reheated specimens was superior to that of the direct quenched specimens in both the low and high cycle regions. The effects of inclusion content, microstructure, and residual stresses on fatigue performance are discussed.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

Bending Fatigue Crack Characterization and Fracture Toughness of Gas Carburized SAE 4320 Steel

1992-02-01
920534
Crack initiation and propagation in an SAE 4320 steel gas carburized to a 1.0 mm case depth was examined in specimens subjected to bending fatigue. Cellulose acetate replicas of incrementally loaded specimens showed that small, intergranular cracks were initiated during static loading to stress levels just above the endurance limit. The intergranular cracks arrest and serve as initiation sites for semi-elliptical, transgranular fatigue crack propagation. The maximum depth of stable crack propagation was between 0.17 and 0.23 mm, a depth which corresponds to the maximum hardness of the carburized case. Three equations which provide approximations to the stress distribution in the fatigue specimens were used to calculate KIC for the carburized case with values of maximum applied stress and measured stable crack geometry.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

1977-02-01
770086
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hole Expansion Properties of Quench & Partitioned, Quench & Tempered and Austempered Steels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0530
Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) is receiving increased attention as a novel Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) processing route as promising tensile properties of the “third generation” have been reported. The current contribution reports hole expansion ratios (HER) of Q&P steels and compares the values with HERs obtained for “conventional” AHSS processing routes such as austempering and Quench & Tempering (Q&T). Intercritically annealed C-Mn-Al-Si-P and fully austenitized C-Mn-Si microstructures were studied. Optimum combinations of tensile strength and HER were obtained for fully austenitized C-Mn-Si Q&P samples. Higher HER values were obtained for Q&P than for Q&T steels for similar tempering/partitioning temperatures. Austempering following intercritical annealing results in higher HER than Q&P at similar tensile strength levels. In contrast, Q&P following full austenitization results in higher hole expansion than austempering even at higher strength levels.
Technical Paper

Effects of Constituent Properties on Performance Improvement of a Quenching and Partitioning Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0812
In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and to perform a computational material design approach for performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the model steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases in the model are determined based on the initial constituent properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model predictions to tensile test results. The influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behavior is then investigated.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Microalloyed Bar Steels

2000-03-06
2000-01-0615
The fatigue behavior of five microalloyed steels, processed with hardnesses between 25-28 HRC containing microstructures ranging from precipitation-hardened ferrite-pearlite to bainite, were evaluated in both low cycle (strain controlled) and high cycle (stress controlled fatigue. The vanadium-bearing steels included, 15R30V, 1522 MoVTi, 1522 MoVTiS, 1534 MoVTi, and 1534 MoVTiSi. Conventional quench and tempered 4140 steel was used as a reference. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) data for all steels were similar. Subtle microstructural-dependent differences in the high-strain amplitude region of the LCF curves were attributed to the effects of retained austenite, present in some of the non-traditional bainitic steels. In high cycle fatigue, all steels exhibited similar properties, except for the ferrite-pearlite steel (15R30V) which exhibited the lowest endurance limit, an observation which was attributed to crack nucleation in coarse-grained ferrite.
Technical Paper

Examination of Pitting Fatigue in Carburized Steels with Controlled Retained Austenite Fractions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0896
The effects of several variables on pitting fatigue life of carburized steels were analyzed using a geared roller test machine (GRTM). The material variables that were primarily used to influence retained austenite include aim surface carbon concentration (0.8 % and 0.95 %), alloy (SAE 4320 and a modified SAE 4122), and cold treatment (performed on one material condition per alloy). Testing variables included contact stress in addition to a variation in lambda ratio (oil film thickness/surface roughness), arising from variation in roughness among the machined surfaces. Test results are presented, and differences in performance are considered in terms of material and testing variables. A primary observation from these results is an improvement in contact fatigue resistance apparently arising from cold-treatment and the associated reduction of retained austenite at the surface.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Sample Size on Fatigue Endurance Limit of a Carburized Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-0539
Prediction of fatigue performance of large structures and components is generally done through the use of a fatigue analysis software, FEA stress/strain analysis, load spectra, and materials properties generated from laboratory tests with small specimens. Prior experience and test data has shown that a specimen size effect exists, i.e. the fatigue strength or endurance limit of large members is lower than that of small specimens made of same material. Obviously, the size effect is an important issue in fatigue design of large components. However a precise experimental study of the size effect is very difficult for several reasons. It is difficult to prepare geometrically similar specimens with increased volume which have the same microstructures and residual stress distributions throughout the entire material volume to be tested. Fatigue testing of large samples can also be a problem due to the limitation of load capacity of the test systems available.
Technical Paper

Investigation of S-N Test Data Scatter of Carburized 4320 Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1006
A series of bending fatigue tests were conducted and S-N data were obtained for two groups of 4320 steel samples: (1) carburized, quenched and tempered, (2) carburized, quenched, tempered and shot peened. Shot peening improved the fatigue life and endurance limit. The S-N data exhibited large scatter, especially for carburized samples and at the high cycle life regime. Sample characterization work was performed and scatter bands were established for residual stress distributions, in addition to fracture and fatigue properties for 4320 steel. Moreover, a fatigue life analysis was performed using fracture mechanics and strain life fatigue theories. Scatter in S-N curves was established computationally by using the lower bound and upper bound in materials properties, residual stress and IGO depth in the input data. The results for fatigue life analysis, using either computational fracture mechanics or strain life theory, agreed reasonably well with the test data.
Technical Paper

The Fatigue Performance of High Temperature Vacuum Carburized Nb Modified 8620 Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1007
The bending fatigue performance of high temperature (1050 °C) vacuum carburized Nb modified 8620 steel, with niobium additions of 0.02, 0.06 and 0.1 wt pct, was evaluated utilizing a modified Brugger specimen geometry. Samples were heated at two different rates (20 and 114 °C min-1) to the carburizing temperature resulting in different prior austenite grain structures that depended on the specific Nb addition and heating rate employed. At the lower heating rate, uniform fine grained prior austenite grain structures developed in the 0.06 and 0.1 Nb steels while a duplex grain structure with the presence of large (>200 μm grains) developed in the 0.02 Nb steel. At the higher heating rate the propensity for abnormal grain growth was highest in the 0.02 Nb steel and complete suppression of abnormal grain growth was achieved only with the 0.1 Nb steel.
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