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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Fuel Chemistry on Regulated Emissions at High Altitude

1996-10-01
961947
The effect of diesel cetane number, total aromatic content T90, and fuel nitrogen content on regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx, and PM) from a 1991 DDC Series 60 engine were measured Emissions tests were conducted using the EPA heavy-duty transient test (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) at a laboratory located 5,280 feet (1609 m) above sea level. The objective of this work was to determine if the effect of fuel chemistry at high altitude is similar to what is observed at sea level and to examine the effect of specific fuel chemistry variables on emissions. An initial tea series was conducted to examine the effect of cetane number and aromatics. Transient emissions for this test series indicated much higher (50 to 75%) particulate emissions at high altitude than observed on the same model engine and similar fuels at sea level.
Technical Paper

Rapid Deactivation of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine Exhaust Oxidation Catalysts

1996-10-01
961976
Methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas engines can be relatively high. As natural gas fueled vehicles become more prevalent, future regulations may restrict these emissions. Preliminary reports indicated that conventional, precious metal oxidation catalysts rapidly deactivate (in less than 50 hours) in lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust. This investigation is directed at quantifying this catalyst deactivation and understanding its cause. The results may also be relevant to oxidation of lean-burn propane and gasoline engine exhaust. A platinum/palladium on alumina catalyst and a palladium on alumina catalyst were aged in the exhaust of a lean-burn natural gas engine (Cummins B5.9G). The engine was fueled with compressed natural gas. Catalyst aging was accomplished through a series of steady state cycles and heavy-duty transient tests (CFR 40 Part 86 Subpart N) lasting 10 hours. Hydrocarbons in the exhaust were speciated by gas chromatography.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Sulfur Content and Oxidation Catalysts on Transient Emissions at High Altitude from a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 Urban Bus Engine

1996-10-01
961974
Regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, and PM) and particulate SOF and sulfate fractions were determined for a 1995 Detroit Diesel Series 50 urban bus engine at varying fuel sulfur levels, with and without catalytic converters. When tested on EPA certification fuel without an oxidation catalyst this engine does not appear to meet the 1994 emissions standards for heavy duty trucks, when operating at high altitude. An ultra-low (5 ppm) sulfur diesel base stock with 23% aromatics and 42.4 cetane number was used to examine the effect of fuel sulfur. Sulfur was adjusted above the 5 ppm level to 50, 100, 200, 315 and 500 ppm using tert-butyl disulfide. Current EPA regulations limit the sulfur content to 500 ppm for on highway fuel. A low Pt diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was tested with all fuels and a high Pt diesel oxidation catalyst was tested with the 5 and 50 ppm sulfur fuels.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition and Altitude on Regulated Emissions from a Lean-Burn, Closed Loop Controlled Natural Gas Engine

1997-05-01
971707
Natural gas presents several challenges to engine manufacturers for use as a heavy-duty, lean burn engine fuel. This is because natural gas can vary in composition and the variation is large enough to produce significant changes in the stoichiometry of the fuel and its octane number. Similarly, operation at high altitude can present challenges. The most significant effect of altitude is lower barometric pressure, typically 630 mm Hg at 1600 m compared to a sea level value of 760 mm. This can lower turbocharger boost at low speeds leading to mixtures richer than desired. The purpose of this test program was to determine the effect of natural gas composition and altitude on regulated emissions and performance of a Cummins B5.9G engine. The engine is a lean-burn, closed loop control, spark ignited, dedicated natural gas engine. For fuel composition testing the engine was operating at approximately 1600 m (5,280 ft) above sea level.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

1991-02-01
910745
Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

1988-02-01
880298
The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

Formability of Type 304 Stainless Steel Sheet

1993-03-01
930814
Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/sec with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.
Technical Paper

HEUI - A New Direction for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1993-03-01
930270
Caterpillar Inc. has developed a new diesel engine fuel system, powered by hydraulics and controlled electronically. This Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, (HEUI), requires no mechanical actuating or mechanical control devices, and offers many advantages over conventional fuel injection systems. Inherent features of the HEUI Fuel System include injection pressure control independent of engine load or speed, totally flexible injection timing, and full electronic control of injection parameters. Packaging the HEUI Fuel System on an engine is simple, as the injector is compact and available in a variety of configurations. The hydraulic actuating circuit is straightforward, using lubricating oil from the engine sump. Hydraulic lines may be internal to the engine or external. This paper describes the Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System, its operating features, performance advantages, and application to diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

1993-09-01
932404
Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Usage by the U. S. Truck and Bus Population and Strategies for Achieving Reductions

1974-02-01
740537
This paper presents an approach to modeling the United States truck and bus population. A detailed model is developed that utilizes domestic factory sales figures combined with a scrappage factor as a building block for the total population. Comparison with historical data for 1958-1970 shows that the model follows trends well for intermediate parameters such as total vehicle miles per year, total fuel consumption, scrappage, etc. Fuel consumption and HC, CO, NO2, CO2 and particulate matter emissions for gasoline and diesel engines are of primary interest. The model details these parameters for the time span 1958-2000 in one-year increments. For HC and CO, truck and bus emissions could equal or exceed automobile emissions in the early 1980s, depending on the degree of control. Three population control strategies are analyzed to determine their effects on reducing fuel consumption or air pollution in later years.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1252
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1035
Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
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