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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Combustion Systems

This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental study of high-pressure pressure-swirl gasoline injectors tested under a range of simulated operating conditions. This study encompassed photographic analysis of single spray sequences and simultaneous measurement of axial velocity, radial velocity and diameter at point locations using the phase-doppler technique. The combination of these measurement techniques permitted an insight into the fluid dynamics of the injected spray and its development with time. Five primary stages in the spray-history were identified and numerated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Air Charge Estimation in Camless Engines

An electromechanically driven valve train offers unprecedented flexibility to optimize engine operation for each speed load point individually. One of the main benefits is the increased fuel economy resulting from unthrottled operation. The absence of a restriction at the entrance of the intake manifold leads to wave propagation in the intake system and makes a direct measurement of air flow with a hot wire air meter unreliable. To deliver the right amount of fuel for a desired air-fuel ratio, we therefore need an open loop estimate of the air flow based on measureable or commanded signals or quantities. This paper investigates various expressions for air charge in camless engines based on quasi-static assumptions for heat transfer and pressure.
Technical Paper

Event-Based Mean-Value Modeling of DI Diesel Engines for Controller Design

Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HCCI Combustion and Emissions Using Detailed Chemistry

To help guide the design of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, single and multi-zone models of the concept are developed by coupling the first law of thermodynamics with detailed chemistry of hydrocarbon fuel oxidation and NOx formation. These models are used in parametric studies to determine the effect of heat loss, crevice volume, temperature stratification, fuel-air equivalence ratio, engine speed, and boosting on HCCI engine operation. In the single-zone model, the cylinder is assumed to be adiabatic and its contents homogeneous. Start of combustion and bottom dead center temperatures required for ignition to occur at top dead center are reported for methane, n-heptane, isooctane, and a mixture of 87% isooctane and 13% n-heptane by volume (simulated gasoline) for a variety of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Idle Combustion Stability Using Flywheel Acceleration

Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for car manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. To get better fuel economy the overall trend is to reduce idle speed at both drive and neutral idles. This typically has adverse impact on vehicle idle quality. Lowering the idle rpm generally degrades the engine combustion stability and also makes the engine driving forces more likely to align with vehicle sensitivities (Powertrain rigid body modes, body modes, etc.). To better understand the contribution to the idle quality from different factors and carry out well-planned improvement measures, a quick and easy way to assess engine combustion stability is required.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Up-Front Prediction of the Effects of Cylinder Head Design on Combustion Rates in SI Engines

Accurate prediction of engine combustion characteristics, especially burn rates, can eliminate a number of hardware iterations, thus resulting in a significant reduction in design and developmental time and cost. An analytical methodology has been developed which allows the determination of part-load MBT spark timing to within 2 crank-angle degrees. The design methodology employs the in-house-developed steady-state quasi-dimensional engine simulation model (GESIM), coupled with full-field measurement of the in-cylinder fluid motion at bottom dead center (BDC) in the computer-controlled water analog system (AquaDyne). The in-cylinder flow-field measurements are obtained using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV), also developed in-house. In this methodology, the in-cylinder flow measurement data are used to calibrate both the tumble and swirl models in GESIM.
Technical Paper

Matching Ignition System Multi-Spark Calibration to the Burn-Rate of an Engine to Extend Ignitability Limits

“Multi-Spark” refers to the charging and discharging of an ignition coil multiple times during a single combustion event. This paper attempts to use multi-sparking to achieve an effect similar to a long duration spark to enhance combustion during slow burn conditions. Although multi-sparking is more typical of capacitive discharge (CDI) ignition systems, this paper discusses the multi-sparking of Kettering ignition systems to achieve the benefits of multi-sparking without CDIs' cost, packaging, complexity and reliability issues. The goal of the multi-spark calibration is to successfully initiate flame kernal development with the first spark discharge and add supplemental energy fast enough through restriking to prevent the flame kernal from quenching.
Technical Paper

Stratified-Charge Engine Fuel Economy and Emission Characteristics

Data from two engines with distinct stratified-charge combustion systems are presented. One uses an air-forced injection system with a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber. The other is a liquid-only, high-pressure injection system which uses fluid dynamics coupled with a shaped piston to achieve stratification. The fuel economy and emission characteristics were very similar despite significant hardware differences. The contributions of indicated thermal efficiency, mechanical friction, and pumping work to fuel economy are investigated to elucidate where the efficiency gains exist and in which categories further improvements are possible. Emissions patterns and combustion phasing characteristics of stratified-charge combustion are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Obtained Residual Fractions and NOX Emissions in Spark-Ignited Engines

Using a fast-sampling valve, residual-fraction levels were determined in a 2.0L spark-ignited production engine, over varying engine operating conditions. Individual samples for each operating condition were analyzed by gas-chromatography which allowed for the determination of in-cylinder CO and CO2 levels. Through a comparison of in-cylinder measurement and exhaust data measurements, residual molar fraction (RMF) levels were determined and compared to analytical results. Analytical calculations were performed using the General Engine SIMulation (GESIM) which is a steady state quasi-dimensional engine combustion cycle simulation. Analytical RMF levels, for identical engine operating conditions, were compared to the experimental results as well as a sensitivity study on wave-dynamics and heat transfer on the analytically predicted RMF. Similarly, theoretical and experimental NOx emissions were compared and production sensitivity on RMF levels explored.
Technical Paper

The Volume Acoustic Modes of Spark-Ignited Internal Combustion Chambers

Acoustic standing waves are excited in internal combustion chambers by both normal combustion and autoignition. The energy in these acoustic modes can be transmitted through the engine block and radiated as high-frequency engine noise. Using finite-element models of two different (four-valve and two-valve) production engine combustion chambers, the mode shapes and relative frequencies of the in-cylinder volume acoustic modes are calculated as a function of crank angle. The model is validated by comparison to spectrograms of experimental time-sampled waveforms (from flush-mounted cylinder pressure sensors and accelerometers) from these two typical production spark-ignited engines.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Powertrain Torsional Response

An analytical model is developed to describe the torsional responses of the powertrain system. The model is used to analyze system equilibrium, free vibration, forced and self-excited vibrations. The equations of motion are linearized about the equilibrium to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional modes. The forced responses of the system are investigated by including the excitations of gas combustion forces and inertia torques induced by the reciprocating motions of the piston and connecting rod. The self-excited vibration induced by negative damping behavior of clutch torque capacity is studied. For an example rear-wheel drive powertrain considered, the free vibration analyses show the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. The forced and the self-excited vibrations for the transmission gearset and the driveline components are examined. Experimental measurements from a test powertrain are used to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Method of Valve-Train Friction Measurement

The general trend in the IC engine design has been towards reduction in fuel consumption since the 1973 oil embargo. The improvement in combustion process has contributed greatly to a better fuel economy of today's engine and there are many challenges ahead on the GDI front towards the 3L/100km engine [1]. One of the biggest windows of opportunity in achieving higher engine fuel efficiency together with an acceptable emissions level is to reduce its friction. To achieve these an accurate method of assessing friction levels through the concept, design and development is paramount. Translation of friction torque to the total drive cycle's fuel consumption is carried out using Ford's in-house CAE analytical packages. A new method of directly measuring camshaft friction has been developed, which offers both exceptional accuracy and unprecedented convenience.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Air-Fuel Ratio Control Using Forced Air-Fuel Ratio Modulation

An air-to-fuel ratio (A/F) modulation scheme is presented in which a linear feedback signal is generated from a heated exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. In this scheme, the engine A/F is modulated with a triangular waveform, and the mean value of the EGO output is obtained using a rolling average filter. The resulting output is linearly related to the exhaust A/F, and is used to provide closed-loop lean A/F operation following a cold start to enhance catalyst light-off and minimize vehicle exhaust emissions. Some engine-dynamometer results obtained using the method are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

Parametric Simulation of Significant Design and Operating Alternatives Affecting the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Spark-Ignited Engines

A fundamental thermodynamic model of the complete spark-ignited, homogeneous charge engine cycle has been used in several parametric analyses to predict the effects of engine design and operating alternatives on fuel consumption and emissions of NOx and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). The simulation includes sub-models for wall heat transfer, NOx and HC emissions, and the engine breathing processes. This work demonstrates the power and utility of a comprehensive engine simulation by presenting several independent parametric studies that were carried out in response to genuine engine design and/or operating strategy questions. Included in this compilation are the effects of cycle heat loss, exhaust port heat loss, combustion duration, and charge dilution (EGR and/or lean air-fuel ratio). In addition, the influence of the design variables associated with bore-stroke ratio, intake and exhaust valve lift, and cam timing are considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emission Indexes within a Turbine Combustor Operated on Diesel Fuel or Methanol

The emission index (grams of species per kilogram of fuel) field within a regenerative turbine combustor has been mapped using a water-cooled sampling probe. The probe employed a choked orifice to simultaneously determine the local temperature. Derived from measurements are: air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, average fuel velocity and fuel distribution factor. Methods of averaging the discrete data are developed. A comparison of the data obtained when the combustor was operated on each of two fuels revealed that the use of methanol leads to lower nitric oxide but higher carbon monoxide emission than does the use of diesel fuel.