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Video

Development of Hybrid System for Mid-Size Sedan

2011-11-07
The energy crisis and rising gas price in the 2000s led to a growing popularity of hybrid vehicles. Hyundai-Kia Motors has been challenging to develop the new efficient eco-technology since introducing the mild type compact hybrid electric vehicle for domestic fleet in 2004 to meet the needs of the increasing automotive-related environmental issues. Now Hyundai has recently debuted a full HEV for global market, Sonata Hybrid. This system is cost effective solution and developed with the main purpose of improving fuel consumption and providing fun to drive. Presenter Seok Joon Kim, Hyundai Motor Company
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Suspension Fundamental Mode Frequency with Extraction of Dynamic Properties of Automotive Shock Absorbers and Tire

2001-03-05
2001-01-0498
The automotive shock absorber has various functions in car performance. Particularly, it is a dominant tuning parameter to get good primary and secondary ride characteristics within 1-35Hz ranges in car development. Thus, understanding of characteristics of shock absorber in this frequency range is indispensable to both test and analysis engineers for an effective and systematic approach. In this study, tire is also investigated from the same point of view. Frequency dependent stiffness and damping coefficient are extracted by discrete sine swept test under constant velocity of 25, 50, 100mm/sec which represent typical road surface conditions[1]. The responses are analyzed on frequency domain and the basic theoretical background for this approach is introduced.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

The COANDA Flow Control and Newtonian Concept Approach to Achieve Drag Reduction of Passenger Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1267
In order to reduce total drag during aerodynamic optimization process of the passenger vehicle, induced drag should be minimized and pressure drag should be decreased by means of applying streamlined body shape. The reduction of wake area could decrease pressure drag, which was generated by boundary layer separation. The induced drag caused by rear axle lift and C-pillar vortex can be reduced by the employing of trunk lid edge and kick-up or an optimized rear spoiler. When a rear spoiler or kick-up shape was installed on the rear end of a sedan vehicle, drag was reduced but the wake area became larger. This contradiction cannot be explained by simply using Bernoulli’s principle with equal transit or longer path theory. Newtonian explanation with COANDA effect is adopted to explain this phenomenon. The relationships among COANDA effect, down wash, C-pillar vortex, rear axle lift and induced drag are explained.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Gear Shift Mechanisms by R-R Chart Method

2001-03-05
2001-01-1163
A new point of view in automatic transmission is proposed by R-R chart, which is a new analytic method based on the linearity of planetary gear and gear shift mechanism. The R-R chart is a visual tool to describe the whole motion of each rotational element of planetary gears in relation to the gear shift mechanism. Therefore, anyone can easily find on R-R chart not only the substance of the gear shift mechanisms in present automatic transmissions but also new gear shift mechanisms for the future automatic transmissions. This paper shows that the R-R chart is unique in 4-speed automatic transmissions with fixed compound planetary gear sets. As a result of the R-R chart application, this paper classifies the fixed compound planetary gear sets with 4 elements into 12 sets and the gear shift mechanisms into 3 types. Also, 4 R-R characteristic equations are derived as a correlation between speed ratios in 4-speed automatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1184
Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0629
A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

The Studies of Crash Characteristics According to Chassis Frame Types

2001-03-05
2001-01-0119
There are various tests for evaluating how well a vehicle protects people in a crash. The frontal and offset crash test is one of the most important tests that evaluate the crashworthiness of a vehicle. In this paper, we will discuss some parameters that have a major effect on the amount and pattern of intrusion into the occupant compartment during the frontal and offset crash test. And the characteristics of impact are described according to the types of chassis frame, T-type frame and #-type frame. The T-frame has worse performance than #-frame in crash, So it is necessary to make stronger dash compartments in T-frame. We will design a vehicle which has optimized body, chassis structure and material selections by controlling major parameters of frontal crash performance.
Technical Paper

The Experimental Study on the Body Panel Shape to Minimize the Weight of the Damping Material

2003-05-05
2003-01-1715
The experimental study on the automotive body panel shape has researched a way to reduce the damping material. Among each differently designed panel shapes, the curved panel shape, with high rigidity, or dynamic stiffness, and uneven deformation mode, has found to most reduce the vibration energy and damping material application. This study shows how could the panel shape influence the NVH performance, which would be measured according to several specifically designed panel shapes in order to compare with the conventional bead panel. And this research proposes the way to optimize the damping material to minimize its weight.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Road Noise by the Investigation of Contributions of Vehicle Components

2003-05-05
2003-01-1718
The mobility technique is used to analyze the transfer functions of road noise between the suspension and the body structure. In the previous analyses, the suspension system and the body structure are altogether modeled as subsystems in the noise transfer path. In this paper, the mobility between the suspension and the body structure is analyzed by the dynamic stiffness at the connecting points. The measured drive point acceleration FRF at the connecting point in the transfer path was used to estimate the contributions of subsystems. The vibration modes of tire, the acoustic noise of tire's interior cavity, the vibration modes of the car's interior room, and the vibrations of body structure and the chassis are also considered to analyze the coupling effects of the road noise. Analyzing the measured results, direction for modification of car components is suggested.
Technical Paper

The Effect Of Intake System Geometry On The Sensitivity Of Hot Film Type Air Flow Meter

2003-05-19
2003-01-1802
The air fuel ratio of current gasoline engine is mostly controlled by various air flow meters. When CVVT (Continuous Variable Valve Timing) device is applied to gasoline engine for higher engine performance, MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure) sensor can not be applied anymore due to intake valve motion. Therefore HFM (Hot film airflow meter) is used for measuring the intake air flow instead of MAP sensor. Usually HFM has a little sensitivity in flow direction, therefore reverse flow from engine to air cleaner can not be measured. Also, HFM maker request enough straight duct length nearly 10 times of a duct diameter making a fully developed flow. But, most vehicles have no enough space to install such an intake system in engine room. Thus the inserted duct was applied to confirm the stable fully developed flow in air duct. The various duct configurations in front of HFM effect on the sensitivity of HFM.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
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