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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting and Improving NVH and Stress in Operating Crankshaft Using Nonlinear Vibration Analysis

1997-02-24
970502
Vibration behavior of a crankshaft in operation is complicated and difficult to simulate because of oil effects on journals, coupled vibration of crankshaft system parts, combustion and inertia acting on the crankshaft. Particularly, the stiffness and damping of oil film vary with crank angles and thus the numerical analysis must deal with nonlinear vibration. This oil film effects also diversify the vibration modes of the crankshat; the vibration modes in an actual operation differs from that in statically experiment modal analysis. This paper describes a new method developed by the author to analyses, predict, and reduce noise and vibration using several techniques including numerical simulation, finite element method, Sommerfeld concept on oil film effects, and modal frequency response.
Technical Paper

The Use of Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) and Partial Field Decomposition to Identify and Quantify the Sources of Exterior Noise Radiated from a Vehicle

1997-05-20
972053
Since powertrain noise sources are usually “hidden” within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial radiation fields that together create the exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address this concern. INAH represents a combination of NAH, reference microphone selection procedures, and coherence techniques. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. A key factor in the success of this procedure is the selection of a good reference microphone sub-set. A selection procedure has been developed by combining condition number and coherence analyses. The partial field determination problem has been approached by using both partial coherence and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) procedures.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of Wind Noise Around Front Pillar

1993-03-01
930296
A numerical analysis method is developed for predicting the pressure fluctuations on the front side window surface, aiming at the elucidation of the external aerodynamic flow structure about the front pillar of a road vehicle. The simulated results are assessed by comparison with the acoustic theory and reveal fairly well the dependence of the predicted surface pressure fluctuations upon the vehicle cruising speed with the sixth power law. The features of three dimensional vortical flow are clarified from the analysis of the simulated results, indicating the strong relationship between the vortical formation and the external pressure fluctuations on the front side window surface. The external pressure fluctuations seem to be strongly related to the vortex breakdown during its interaction with the front side window and the roof-side window junction.
Technical Paper

Determination of Source Contribution in Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

2009-05-19
2009-01-2228
As noise concerns for snowmobiles become of greater interest for governing bodies, standards such as SAE J192 are implemented for regulation. Specific to this pass-by noise standard, and unlike many other pass-by tests, multiple non-standardized test surfaces are allowed to be used. Manufacturers must understand how the machines behave during these tests to know how to best improve the measured noise levels. Data is presented that identifies the contributions of different sources for different snowmobiles on various test surface conditions. Adaptive resampling for Doppler removal, frequency response functions and order tracking methods are implemented in order to best understand what components affect the overall measurement during the pass-by noise test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2239
The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

2011-05-17
2011-01-1732
Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

2011-05-17
2011-01-1729
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

2013-05-13
2013-01-2010
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Impact Noise and Three-Dimensional Vibration

2014-10-13
2014-01-2863
This paper describes the characteristics and mechanism of crankshaft impact noise that radiates from the cylinder body at full load medium engine speeds, based on the mechanism for axial vibration of crankshaft coupled with torsional vibration of crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Noise and Vibration Using Inverse Matrix Techniques

1999-09-14
1999-01-2815
Noise Path Analysis techniques (NPA) have been developed and refined by the automotive industry for structure-borne noise and vibration evaluation of their products. Off-highway vehicles, particularly those with enclosed cabs, are excellent candidates for the application of these techniques. Like automobiles, many off-highway machines are typically driven by a rotating power source, have a well-defined acoustic receiver space, and use some form of isolation between source and receiver sub-systems. These structural characteristics make NPA a useful tool for identifying dominant sources and energy transfer paths. The objectives of this paper are to revisit the fundamental theory of matrix inversion as it applies to NPA techniques, and to address the common setup and measurement issues encountered when acquiring noise path data on off-highway machines. A general overview of the procedures involved in applying NPA to an off-highway machine will be presented.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

1999-09-14
1999-01-2818
Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Identification and Methods of Reducing Rear Window Buffeting Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2402
Rear Window Buffeting (RWB) is the low-frequency, high amplitude, sound that occurs in many 4-door vehicles when driven 30-70 mph with one rear window lowered. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the mechanisms of RWB are similar to that of sun roof buffeting and to describe the results of several actions suspected in contributing to the severity of RWB. Finally, the results of several experiments are discussed that may lend insight into ways to reduce the severity of this event. A detailed examination of the side airflow patterns of a small Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shows these criteria exist on a small SUV, and experiments to modify the SUV airflow pattern to reduce RWB are performed with varying degrees of success. Based on the results of these experiments, design actions are recommended that may result in the reduction of RWB.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Acoustic Encapsulation to Reduce Diesel Engine Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2375
This paper describes a study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an acoustic encapsulation to reduce airborne noise from a commercial diesel engine. First, the various sources of noise from the engine were identified using Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH). Detailed NAH measurements were conducted on the four sides of the engine in an engine test cell. The main sources of noise from the engine were ranked and identified within the frequency ranges of interest. Experimental modal analysis was conducted on the oil pan and front cover plate of the engine to reveal correlations of structural vibration results with the data from the NAH. The second phase of the study involved the design and fabrication of the acoustical encapsulation (noise covers) for the engine in a test cell to satisfy the requirements of space, cost and performance constraints. The acoustical materials for the enclosure were selected to meet the frequency and temperature ranges of interest.
Technical Paper

Analytical Simulation of the Effects of Noise Control Treatments on an Excavator Cab using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2315
The objective of this study was to utilize Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to simulate the effects of a variety of noise control treatments on the interior sound pressure level (SPL) of a commercial excavator cab. In addition, the effects of leaks on the SPL of the excavator cab were also investigated. This project was conducted along with various tests that were used to determine the inputs needed to accurately represent the loads that the cab experienced during operation. This paper explains the how the model was constructed, how the loads were applied to the model, the results that were obtained from application of treatments, and a study of the effects of introducing leaks to the cab structure in the SEA model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Stick-Slip Noise from the Crankshaft Oil Seal of the Diesel Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3502
The noise of diesel engines operating at low idle is an important noise evaluation criterion in both commercial vehicles and passenger cars. At low idle, a quiet, pleasant noise is required. Accordingly, unusual noise occurrence at low speed is a serious problem, and the noise must be prevented. In this paper, characteristics of the stick-slip noise, which is an unusual noise that radiates from the oil seal at low idle and the generating mechanism of the stick-slip noise in the six-cylinder-inline diesel engine are discussed. In addition, a method to prevent the stick-slip noise is presented.
Technical Paper

Threshold Level as an Index of Squeak and Rattle Performance

1999-05-17
1999-01-1730
A practical approach for evaluating and validating global system designs for Squeak and Rattle performance is proposed. Using simple slip and rattle models, actual sound and vibration data, and the fundamentals of audiological perception, analysis tools adapted from Chaos Theory are used to establish threshold levels of performance and identify system characteristics which are significant contributors to Squeak and Rattle. Focus on system design is maintained by using a simple rattle noise indicator and relating rattle events to levels of dynamic motion (acceleration, velocity, etc.). The threshold level is defined as the level of acceleration at which the system moves from a non-rattling state to a rattling state. The approach is demonstrated with a simple analytical model applied to an experimental structure under dynamic load.
Technical Paper

Application of Signature Analysis and Operating Deflection Shapes to Identify Interior Noise Sources in an Excavator

2007-05-15
2007-01-2427
The objective of this study was to identify and gain an understanding of the origins of noise in a commercial excavator cab. This paper presents the results of two different tests that were used to characterize the vibration and acoustic characteristics of the excavator cab. The first test was done in an effort to characterize the vibration properties of the cab panels and their associated contribution to the noise level inside the cab. The second set, of tests, was designed to address the contribution of the external airborne noise produced by the engine and hydraulic pump to the overall interior noise. This paper describes the test procedures used to obtain the data for the signature analysis, operational deflection shapes (ODS), and sound diagnosis analysis. It also contains a discussion of the analysis results and an inside look into the possible contributors of key frequencies to the interior noise in the excavator cab.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Single Cylinder, Turbocharged, Four-Stroke Snowmobile with E.F.I. and Catalytic Exhaust Treatment

2002-10-21
2002-01-2761
The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, four-stroke engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive, and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual dynamometer and field test data. The vehicle is partially compliant with the proposed 2010 EPA snowmobile emissions regulations and passes an independently conducted, 74 dBA, full throttle pass-by noise test. The vehicle addresses the environmental issues surrounding snowmobiles and remains economical, with an approximate cost of $6,345.
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