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Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

A Review and Classification of Variable Valve Timing Mechanisms

Mechanisms for internal combustion engine variable valve timing (VVT) have been the subject of almost 800 US patents since 1880. Over 110 of these patents were issued just in the three years 1985 through 1987. Also, many technical papers have been published on VVT mechanisms. We reviewed all of these patents and much of the literature. As a result, we have classified all the mechanisms found into IS basic concepts which we describe and evaluate in this paper. We conclude that VVT has much potential, but that very little of this potential has yet been realized. Serious difficulties have limited the application of variable valve timing to date. Virtually all VVT mechanisms proposed until recently suffer from high cost and complexity, limited variability, and high impact velocities. An improved system is described in a companion paper (1)*.
Technical Paper

A Review of Variable Valve Timing Benefits and Modes of Operation

It has long been known that IC engine variable valve timing (VVT) has the potential for significant improvements in engine performance. Many technical papers have been published on the potential benefits of internal combustion engine variable valve timing and the modes of valve operation that can be used to realize these benefits. Almost 800 US patents have been released on the subject of mechanisms to effect VVT since 1880. An extensive review of this literature and patents was made to determine the benefits obtainable from VVT and what operation modes allow these benefits to be obtained. We conclude that VVT has much potential. The potential gains include 15% or more average fuel economy gains as well as significant improvements in torque characteristics, emission reductions, etc. Nevertheless, little of VVT's potential has yet been realized, since serious mechanical difficulties have limited VVT applications to date.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Realizing Stoichiometric, Natural Gas-Fueled Combustion in Diesel Engines

For high-load applications, natural gas represents a clean burning, readily available, and relatively inexpensive alternative to number 2 Diesel fuel. However, the fuel’s poor ignitability has previously limited implementation to spark ignited and dual-fueled engines. These approaches suffer from reduced peak load and high engine-out particulate emissions, respectively, requiring lean operation and expensive aftertreatment to meet regulatory standards. A high-temperature combustion strategy can overcome the difficult ignitibility, allowing for true Diesel-style combustion of pure methane-the least ignitable and least sooting component of natural gas. In order to achieve this result, a compression system was designed to supply fuel at pressures suitably high to achieve good mixing and short injection durations, and a solenoid-actuated Diesel fuel injector was modified to function at these pressures with a gaseous fuel.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control of Lean Fuel-Air Ratios Using a Temperature Compensated Zirconia Oxygen Sensor

Several recent papers describe closed loop fuel-air ratio control systems designed to operate at stoichiometric conditions because of the high three-way catalyst conversion efficiencies which occur only in a narrow band around stoichiometric. This paper investigates closed loop control of fuel-air ratio using a temperature compensated zirconia sensor at other than stoichiometric conditions. If engines can be made to run at very lean(Φ≈0.6-0.7) equivalence ratios through greater attention to proper fuel-air mixing and vaporization, CO, HC, and NOx emissions are minimized simultaneously. Closed loop control in the lean region makes the system insensitive to parameter variations and allows the fuel-air ratio to be maintained closer to the lean limit than would be possible under conventional open loop conditions.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

A Multi-dimensional Flamelet Model Framework Applied to Split-injection DI Diesel Engines

A general model framework for investigating various injection strategies in compression ignition engines with both mixture and thermal inhomogeneities is presented using an extended representative interactive flamelet model. The equations describing evolution of chemistry are written for a scalar phase space of either one or two dimensions and an approach for modeling multiple injections is given. The combustion model is solved interactively with the turbulent flow field by coupling with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The model is applied in the simulation of a split-injection diesel engine and results are compared to experimental data obtained from a single cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Unburnt Hydrocarbon Emissions in a Homogeneous-Charge Late-Injection Diesel-Fueled Engine

Strict NOx and soot emission regulations for Diesel engines have created an interest in low-temperature partially-homogeneous combustion regimes in both the US and Europe. One strategy, Homogeneous-Charge Late-Injection (HCLI) combustion utilizes 55% or more cooled external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) with a single Direct Injection strategy to control ignition timing. These engines are operated at low temperatures to ensure near zero NOx emissions, implying that fuel in the thermal boundary layers will not reach sufficient temperature to fully oxidize, resulting in Unburnt Hydrocarbon (UHC) and CO emissions. Of particular interest to HCLI engines are the UHC's that are not fully oxidized by the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Experimental measurements reveal that at average equivalence ratios greater than 0.8, methane is the single largest tailpipe-out UHC emission.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels

The development of surrogate mixtures that represent gasoline combustion behavior is reviewed. Combustion chemistry behavioral targets that a surrogate should accurately reproduce, particularly for emulating homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation, are carefully identified. Both short and long term research needs to support development of more robust surrogate fuel compositions are described. Candidate component species are identified and the status of present chemical kinetic models for these components and their interactions are discussed. Recommendations are made for the initial components to be included in gasoline surrogates for near term development. Components that can be added to refine predictions and to include additional behavioral targets are identified as well. Thermodynamic, thermochemical and transport properties that require further investigation are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.