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Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulating PM Emissions and Combustion Stability in Gasoline/Diesel Fuelled Engines

Regulations on emissions from diesel and gasoline fuelled engines are becoming more stringent in all parts of the world. Hence there is a great deal of interest in developing advanced combustion systems that offer the efficiency of a diesel engine, but with low PM and NOx. One promising approach is that of Partially-Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) or Low Temperature Combustion (LTC). Using this approach, PM can be reduced in compression ignition engines by promoting the mixing of fuel and air prior to combustion. This paper describes the application of an advanced combustion simulator for fuels, combustion and emissions to analyze the key processes which occur in PPCI combustion mode. A detailed chemical kinetic model with advanced PM population balance sub-model is employed in a PPCI engine context to examine the impact of ignition resistance on combustion, mixing, ignition and emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating Combustion of Practical Fuels and Blends for Modern Engine Applications Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

This research describes the potential to adopt detailed chemical kinetics for practical and potential future fuels using tri-component surrogate mixtures capable of simulating fuel octane “sensitivity” . Since the combustion characteristics of modern fuels are routinely measured using the RON and MON of the fuel, a methodology to generate detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for these fuels based on these data is presented. Firstly, a novel correlation between various tri-component blends (comprised of i-octane, n-heptane and toluene) and fuel RON and MON was obtained by carrying out standard octane tests. Secondly, a chemical kinetic mechanism for tri-component fuels was validated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) suite, an in-cylinder engine combustion simulator, and a series of engine experiments conducted in HCCI operating mode.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Implementing Detailed Chemistry and In-Cylinder Stratification into 0/1-D IC Engine Cycle Simulation Tools

Employing detailed chemistry into modern engine simulation technologies has potential to enhance the robustness and predictive power of such tools. Specifically this means significant advancements in the ability to compute the onset of ignition, low and high temperature heat release, local extinction, knocking, exhaust gas emissions formation etc. resulting in a set of tools which can be employed to carry out virtual engineering studies and add additional insight into common IC engine development activities such as computing IMEP, identifying safe/feasible operating ranges, minimizing exhaust gas emissions and optimizing operating strategy. However the adoption of detailed chemistry comes at a greater computational cost, this paper investigates the means to retain computational robustness and ease of use whist reducing computational timescales.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.