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Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

A Classification of Reciprocating Engine Combustion Systems

Obtaining and maintaining a stratified charge in a practical engine is a difficult problem. Consequently, many approaches have been proposed and reported in the scientific and patent literature. In attempting to assess the most profitable approach for future development work, it is important to group together similar approaches so that one can study their performance as a group. Making such a classification has the additional advantage of helping to standardize terminology used by different investigators. With this thought in mind, a literature study was made and a proposed classification chart prepared for the different engine combustion systems reported in the literature. For the sake of completeness, the finally proposed classification chart includes homogeneous combustion engines as well as heterogeneous combustion engines. Because of their similarity of combustion, rotary engines such as the Wankel engine are considered as “reciprocating” although gas turbines are not included.
Technical Paper

Fuel - Engine Research in Universities

The reasons for conducting research in a university are presented and discussed. It is concluded that fuel-engine studies are compatible with these reasons and therefore are well suited for university research. Past studies in this field are summarized and unanswered questions and future topics suitable for university investigation are suggested. Included in the topics discussed are: instrumentation, thermodynamic description of working fluids, fuel vaporization and atomization, combustion, and instantaneous heat transfer and mass flow rates. The steps that need to be taken to ensure continuing university interest in fuel-engine studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
Technical Paper

Fuel Vaporization and Ignition Las in Diesel Combustion

AN analysis of phenomena occurring during the ignition delay period is presented. Vaporization of atomized fuel is shown to take place under conditions ranging between single droplet and adiabatic saturation from edge to center of the spray. Mechanisms of vaporization and combustible mixture formation are presented for both cases. Correlation of theoretical analysis with experimental data from both a combustion bomb and diesel engine is presented to establish actual conditions existing during vaporization. Estimates of physical and chemical delays for the engine and bomb are given.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Operation and Design for Minimum Exhaust Emission

The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Technical Paper

A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium Combustion Products with Some Applications to I.C. Engines

A computer program which rapidly calculates the equilibrium mole fractions and the partial derivatives of the mole fractions with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio for the products of combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel and air is described. A subroutine is also given which calculates the gas constant, enthalpy, internal energy and the partial derivatives of these with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. Some examples of the uses of the programs are also given.
Technical Paper

Mass Burning Rate in a Rotary Combustion Engine

This paper reports the mass-burning rate in a rotary combustion engine. The mass-burning rate is calculated through an iterative constituent and energy constraints during the combustion process. First approximation is obtained through the firing and motoring-pressure trace as recorded by an image-retaining oscilloscope and recorded subsequently by a polaroid camera. Effect of engine load, engine speed, relative (A/F) on the mass-burning rate and maximum heat release rate were studied. Three different type of fuels were used in the experimental test runs.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.