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Video

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol Content in Gasoline on Speciated Emissions from a Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1206
The influence of ethanol content in gasoline on speciated emissions from a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine is assessed. The engine tested is a commercial DISC one that has a wall guided combustion system. The emissions were analyzed using both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional emission measurement equipment. Seven fuels were compared in the study. The first range of fuels was of alkylate type, designed to have 0, 5, 10 and 15 % ethanol in gasoline without changing the evaporation curve. European emissions certification fuel was tested, with and without 5 % ethanol, and finally a specially blended high volatility gasoline was also tested. The measurements were conducted at part-load, where the combustion is in stratified mode. The engine used a series engine control unit (ECU) that regulated the fuel injection, ignition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Flow Visualization Study of an HVAC Module Operated in Water

2001-05-14
2001-01-1702
Centrifugal blowers serve as the primary source of airflow and aero-acoustic noise in automotive HVAC modules. Flow field measurements inside blowers indicate very complex flow patterns. A detailed flow visualization study was conducted on an actual HVAC fan module operated in water under dynamically similar conditions as those in air with the purpose of studying the complex flow patterns in order to improve the aerodynamic performance of the fan/scroll casing and diffuser components. Fan-scroll/diffuser interaction was also studied as function of fan speed. Conventional and special (shear thickening) dye injection flow visualization techniques were used to study the complex 3-dimensional vortical and unsteady flow patterns that occur in typical HVAC fans. A major advantage of the flow visualization technique using shear-thickening dye is its usefulness in high the Reynolds number flows that are typically encountered inside HVAC modules.
Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Prerequisites for Extensive Computer Manikin Analysis – An Example with Hierarchical Task Analysis, File Exchange Protocol and a Relational Database

2001-06-26
2001-01-2101
In this case study, a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola. Cupola is a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of a Barter Arrangement between ESA and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Manikin software was used early in the design process before the production of any flight hardware. The manikin analysis was supported by the use of hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database. This paper describes methodological aspects of the use of the supporting methods. Results show that hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database are prerequisites for successful extensive manikin analysis.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

2001-05-07
2001-01-2008
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion with Reduced Nozzle Orifice Diameter

2001-05-07
2001-01-2010
Future emission legislation will require substantial reductions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. The combustion and emission formation in a diesel engine is governed mainly by spray formation and mixing. Important parameters governing these are droplet size, distribution, concentration and injection velocity. Smaller orifices are believed to give smaller droplet size, even with reduced injection pressure, which leads to better fuel atomization, faster evaporation and better mixing. In this paper experiments are performed on a single cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with three nozzles of different orifice diameters (Ø0.227 mm, Ø0.130 mm, Ø0.090 mm). Two loads (low and medium) and three speeds were investigated. The test results confirmed a substantial reduction in HC and soot emissions at lower loads for the small orifices.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flow Around a Ground Vehicle Body

2001-03-05
2001-01-0702
Large Eddy Simulation of the the flow around bus-like ground vehicle body is presented. Both the time-averaged and instantaneous aspects of this flow are studied. Time-averaged velocity profiles are computed and compared with the experiments [1] and show good agreement. The separation length and the base pressure coefficient are presented. The predicted pumping process in the near wake occurs with a Strouhal number St = 0.073, compared with St = 0.069 in the experiment. Unsteady results at two points are presented and compared with the experiments. The coherent structures are studied and show good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection for Prechamber SI Engines Using Ion-Sensing and Rotational Speed Measurements

2001-03-05
2001-01-0993
A misfire detection study on a prechamber equipped spark ignition gas combustion engine is presented. The study shows that the logarithm of the absolute valued ion current can be linearly weighted in order to detect misfire over a broad load range with only one threshold. Results also show that a very low complexity misfire detector can achieve good performance when a linear weighting technique is applied to the squared rotational speed samples. The detection performance based on the combination of rotational speed and ionization measurements is also presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of the Combustion Process in a Heavy–Duty DI Diesel Engine for Different Injection Scenarios

2003-05-19
2003-01-1783
The effects of injection pressure and duration on exhaust gas emissions, sooting flame temperature, and soot distribution for a heavy–duty single cylinder DI diesel engine were investigated experimentally. The experimental analysis included use of two–color pyrometry as well as “conventional” measuring techniques. Optical access into the engine was obtained through an endoscope mounted in the cylinder head. The sooting flame temperature and soot distribution were evaluated from the flame images using the AVL VisioScope™ system. The results show that the NOx/soot trade–off curves could be improved by increasing injection pressure. An additional reduction could also be obtained if, for the same level of injection pressure, the injection duration was prolonged.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Influence of Nozzle Orifice Geometries on Fuel Evaporation using Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

2003-05-19
2003-01-1836
Projected stringent emissions legislation will make tough demands on engine development. For diesel engines, in which combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes, fuel injection plays a major role in the future development of cleaner engines. It is therefore important to study the fundamental features of the fuel injection process. In an engine the fuel is injected at high pressure into a pressurized and hot environment of air, which causes droplet formation and fuel evaporation. The injected fuel then forms a gaseous phase surrounding the liquid phase. The amount of evaporated fuel in relation to the total amount of injected fuel is of importance for engine performance, i.e. ignition delay and mixing rate. In this paper, the fraction of evaporated fuel was determined for sprays, using different orifice diameters ranging from 0.100 mm up to 0.227 mm, with the aid of a high-pressure spray chamber.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
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