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Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0553
Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Technical Paper

Momentum Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

2004-03-08
2004-01-0535
The discrete droplet model is widely used to describe two-phase flows such as high-velocity dense sprays. The interaction between the liquid and the gas phase is modeled via appropriate source terms in the gas phase equations. This approach can lead to a strong dependence of the liquid-gas coupling on the spatial resolution of the gas phase. The liquid-gas coupling requires the computation of source terms using the gas phase properties, and, subsequently, these sources are then distributed onto the gas phase mesh. In this study, a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method has been developed to evaluate the source terms and also to distribute these source terms onto the gas mesh. The focus of this investigation has been on the momentum exchange between the two phases. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are evaluated for non-evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Two Catalyzed Particulate Filters on Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine: Filtration and Particulate Matter Oxidation Characteristics Studied Experimentally and Using a 1- D 2- Layer Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0950
A 1-D 2-layer model developed previously at MTU was used in this research to predict the pressure drop, filtration characteristics and various properties of the particulate filter and the particulate deposit layer. The model was used along with dilute emission data to characterize two catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs) having different catalyst loading and catalyst application processes. The model was calibrated and validated with data obtained from steady state experiments conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine with manual EGR with different fuels for the two different CPFs. The two different catalyzed particulate filters were CPF III (5 gms/ft3 Pt) and CPF V (50 gms/ft3 Pt). Both the CPFs had cordierite substrates with CPF III and CPF V had MEX and NEX catalyst type formulation respectively. The CPF III filter was catalyzed using a solution-impregnated process while the CPF V filter was catalyzed using a wash coat process.
Technical Paper

Mass Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

2005-04-11
2005-01-1241
This investigation is a continuation of a previous study by these authors in which a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method was developed to evaluate spray source terms and also to distribute the source terms onto the gas mesh; the method was applied to the liquid-gas momentum exchange. For this investigation, the method has been extended to the mass exchange between the liquid and gas phases due to evaporation. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are applied to the liquid-gas mass and momentum exchange and are evaluated for evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform. These methods are compared with the standard “nearest neighbor” method of KIVA3, and experimental data are used to establish their validity. The evaluation criteria used include the liquid and vapor spray penetration, gas velocities and the computational stability.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays and Verification with Experimental Data

2002-03-04
2002-01-0946
Non-evaporating diesel sprays have been simulated utilizing the ETAB and the WAVE atomization and breakup models and have been compared with experimental data. The experimental penetrations and widths were determined from back-lit spray images and the droplet sizes have been measured by means of a Malvern particle sizer. The model evaluation criteria include the spray penetration, the spray width and the local droplet size. The comparisons have been performed for variations of the injection pressure, the gas density and the fuel viscosity. The fuel nozzle exit velocities used in the simulations have been computed with a special code that considers the effect of in-nozzle cavitation. The simulations showed good overall agreement with experimental data. However, the capabilities of the models to predict the droplet size for different fuels could be improved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Journal Article

Eulerian CFD Modeling of Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray with Validation Against X-Ray Radiography Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1425
This paper implements a coupled approach to integrate the internal nozzle flow and the ensuing fuel spray using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method in the CONVERGE CFD software. A VOF method was used to model the internal nozzle two-phase flow with a cavitation description closed by the homogeneous relaxation model of Bilicki and Kestin [1]. An Eulerian single velocity field approach by Vallet et al. [2] was implemented for near-nozzle spray modeling. This Eulerian approach considers the liquid and gas phases as a complex mixture with a highly variable density to describe near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained from the Favreaveraged liquid mass fraction. The liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Evaporation of Spherical Droplets Impinging on the Wall Using Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0852
This paper aims to extend the existing Volume of Fluid (VOF) model by implementing an evaporation sub-model in an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, OpenFOAM. The paper applies the new model to numerically study the evaporation of spherical n-heptane droplets impinging on a hot wall at atmospheric pressure and a temperature above the Leidenfrost temperature. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is chosen to track the liquid gas interface and the capability of VOF method implemented in interDyMFoam solver of OpenFOAM to simulate hydrodynamics during droplet-droplet interaction and droplet-film interaction is explored. Firstly, the in-built solver is used to simulate problems in isothermal conditions and the simulation results are compared qualitatively with the published results to validate the solver. A numerical method for modeling heat and mass transfer during evaporation is implemented in conjunction with the VOF.
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