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Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Combustion Modeling of Direct and Port-Fuel Injected Engines using a Reduced Chemical Mechanism

A set of reduced chemical mechanisms was developed for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations of premixed gasoline combustion. The detailed Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism (1034 species, 4236 reactions) from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was employed as the starting mechanism. The detailed mechanism, referred to here as LLNL-PRF, was reduced using a technique known as Parallel Direct Relation Graph with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. This technique allows for efficient mechanism reduction by parallelizing the ignition delay calculations used in the reduction process. The reduction was performed for a temperature range of 800 to 1500 K and equivalence ratios of 0.5 to 1.5. The pressure range of interest was 0.75 bar to 40 bar, as dictated by the wide range in spark timing cylinder pressures for the various cases. In order to keep the mechanisms relatively small, two reductions were performed.
Technical Paper

Modeling Turbulent Combustion Using a RANS Model, Detailed Chemistry, and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

Combustion is governed by only two phenomena: chemical reactions and mixing (i.e., transport of energy, species, and momentum). A Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model is commonly employed to account for the enhanced mixing due to the presence of turbulence in fluid flow. A RANS turbulence model enhances mixing by introducing a turbulent viscosity. The addition of a turbulent viscosity not only enhances mixing but it also eliminates smaller scales in the CFD simulation. Even though the turbulent viscosity eliminates smaller scales, it is common for RANS engine combustion simulations to be under-resolved. The lack of sufficient mesh resolution to resolve the remaining scales in a RANS combustion simulation may result in a significant sub-grid term that needs to be modeled. In the context of combustion simulation, it is shown that frequently this sub-grid term is significantly more important than Turbulent Chemistry Interaction terms (TCI).
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamic Coupling of Internal Nozzle Flow and Spray Formation for Gasoline Direct Injection Applications

A numerical study has been carried out to assess the effects of needle movement and internal nozzle flow on spray formation for a multi-hole Gasoline Direct Injection system. The coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation is dynamic in nature and simulations with pragmatic choice of spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to analyze the sprays in a GDI system. The dynamic coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation will be performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) approach. In this approach, the liquid fuel will remain in the Eulerian framework while exiting the nozzle, while, depending on local instantaneous liquid concentration in a given cell and amount of liquid in the neighboring cells, part of the liquid mass will be transferred to the Lagrangian framework in the form of Lagrangian parcels.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Journal Article

Eulerian CFD Modeling of Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray with Validation Against X-Ray Radiography Data

This paper implements a coupled approach to integrate the internal nozzle flow and the ensuing fuel spray using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method in the CONVERGE CFD software. A VOF method was used to model the internal nozzle two-phase flow with a cavitation description closed by the homogeneous relaxation model of Bilicki and Kestin [1]. An Eulerian single velocity field approach by Vallet et al. [2] was implemented for near-nozzle spray modeling. This Eulerian approach considers the liquid and gas phases as a complex mixture with a highly variable density to describe near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained from the Favreaveraged liquid mass fraction. The liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas.