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Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Urea Deposit Predictions on a Practical Mid/Heavy Duty Vehicle After-Treatment System

Urea/SCR systems have been proven effective at reducing NOx over a wide range of operating conditions on mid/heavy duty diesel vehicles. However, design changes due to reduction in the size of modern compact Urea/SCR systems and lower exhaust temperature have increased the possibility of urea deposit formation. Urea deposits are formed when urea in films and droplets undergoes undesirable secondary reactions and generate by-products such as ammelide, biuret and cyanuric Acid (CYA). Ammelide and CYA are difficult to decompose which lead to the formation of solid deposits on the surface. This phenomenon degrades the performance of the after treatment system by decreasing overall mixing efficiency, lowering de-NOx efficiency and increasing pressure drop. Therefore, mitigating urea deposits is a primary design goal of modern diesel after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Detailed Chemical Kinetics Using Multi-zone Modeling for CFD in Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

Detailed chemical kinetics, although preferred due to increased accuracy, can significantly slow down CFD combustion simulations. Chemistry solutions are typically the most computationally costly step in engine simulations. The calculation time can be significantly accelerated using a multi-zone combustion model. The multi-zone model is integrated into the CONVERGE CFD code. At each time-step, the CFD cells are grouped into zones based on the cell temperature and equivalence ratio. The chemistry solver is invoked only on each zone. The zonal temperature and mass fractions are remapped onto the CFD cells, such that the temperature and composition non-uniformities are preserved. Two remapping techniques published in the literature are compared for their relative performance. The accuracy and speed-up of the multi-zone model is improved by using variable bin sizes at different temperature and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Modeling Turbulent Combustion Using a RANS Model, Detailed Chemistry, and Adaptive Mesh Refinement

Combustion is governed by only two phenomena: chemical reactions and mixing (i.e., transport of energy, species, and momentum). A Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model is commonly employed to account for the enhanced mixing due to the presence of turbulence in fluid flow. A RANS turbulence model enhances mixing by introducing a turbulent viscosity. The addition of a turbulent viscosity not only enhances mixing but it also eliminates smaller scales in the CFD simulation. Even though the turbulent viscosity eliminates smaller scales, it is common for RANS engine combustion simulations to be under-resolved. The lack of sufficient mesh resolution to resolve the remaining scales in a RANS combustion simulation may result in a significant sub-grid term that needs to be modeled. In the context of combustion simulation, it is shown that frequently this sub-grid term is significantly more important than Turbulent Chemistry Interaction terms (TCI).
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach Combining Adaptive Mesh Refinement, the ECFM3Z Turbulent Combustion Model, and the TKI Tabulated Auto-Ignition Model for Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Computing for Simulating Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Combustion Engines

Interest in operational cost reduction is driving engine manufacturers to consider low-cost fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel engines. These dual-fuel (DF) engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas (NG) ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. Under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can result in increased cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) during combustion. CFD can greatly help in understanding and identifying critical parameters influencing CCV. Innovative modelling techniques and large computing resources are needed to investigate the factors affecting CCV in dual-fuel engines. This paper discusses the use of the High Performance Computing resource Titan, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to investigate CCV of a dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Directional Emissions Predictions of NOx and Soot of a Diesel ICE via Numerical Simulation

The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables prediction of premature failures and study of new promising concepts. In industry, numerical simulation has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests prior to spending resources on alternatives with lower likelihood of success. The internal combustion Diesel engine plays an important role in Brazil, since they are used extensively in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability. In this case, the most critical pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) or soot. The reduction of their levels without affecting the engine performance is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for guiding the combustion analysis by the prediction of NOx emissions and soot using numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Development of a Reduced Chemical Mechanism for Combustion of Gasoline-Biofuels

Bio-derived fuels are drawing more and more attention in the internal combustion engine (ICE) research field in recent years. Those interests in use of renewable biofuels in ICE applications derive from energy security issues and, more importantly, from environment pollutant emissions concerns. High fidelity numerical study of engine combustion requires advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to be coupled with detailed chemical kinetic models. This task becomes extremely challenging if real fuels are taken into account, as they include a mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons, which prohibitively increases computational cost. Therefore, along with employing surrogate fuel models, reduction of detailed kinetic models for multidimensional engine applications is preferred. In the present work, a reduced mechanism was developed for primary reference fuel (PRF) using the directed relation graph (DRG) approach. The mechanism was generated from an existing detailed mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Flow Around a Blunt-Base Vehicle

This paper describes the results of experiments that were performed using a Ground Research Vehicle (GRV) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, CA and a comparison with computational results. The GRV is a modified 1984 General Motors (GMC) van and measures 40 feet long and 9 feet high, with a base area of 83 by 83, and it weighs 10260 lbs and holds a crew of up to three. Air data is measured from a nose-boom, 2 global positioning (GPS) units, and an absolute Honeywell Pressure Transducer with 4 Electronic Signal Processor (ESP) scanners and 64 surface pressure ports. This allows for detailed measurements of the surface pressure profiles around the vehicle. The total vehicle drag is estimated from coast-down tests, while the pressure component of the drag force may be calculated by integrating the pressure profiles on the front and base of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

Assessment of CFD Methods for Large Diesel Engines Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

A KIVA-based CFD tool has been utilized to simulate the effect of a Common-Rail injection system applied to a large, uniflow-scavenged, two-stroke diesel engine. In particular, predictions for variations of injection pressure and injection duration have been validated with experimental data. The computational models have been evaluated according to their predictive capabilities of the combustion behavior reflected by the pressure and heat release rate history and the effects on nitric oxide formation and wall temperature trends. In general, the predicted trends are in good agreement with the experimental observations, thus demonstrating the potential of CFD as a design tool for the development of large diesel engines equipped with Common-Rail injection. Existing deficiencies are identified and can be explained in terms of model limitations, specifically with respect to the description of turbulence and combustion chemistry.
Technical Paper

Applying Soot Phi-T Maps for Engineering CFD Applications in Diesel Engines

Soot modeling has become increasingly important as diesel engine manufacturers are faced with constantly tightening soot emission limits. As such the accuracy of the soot models used is more and more important but at the same time 3-D CFD engine studies require models that are computationally not too demanding. In this study, soot Phi-T maps created with detailed chemistry code have been used to develop a soot model for engineering purposes. The proposed soot model was first validated against detailed chemistry results in premixed laminar environment. As turbulence in engines is of major importance, it was taken into account in the soot oxidation part of the model with the laminar and turbulent characteristic time- type of approach. Finally, the model was tested in a large bore Diesel engine with varying loads. Within the steps described above, the proposed model was also compared with the well-known Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model.
Technical Paper

Gradient-Based Optimization of a Multi-Orifice Asynchronous Injection System in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Cost Function

A gradient-based optimization tool has been developed and, in conjunction with a CFD code, utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. The approach taken uses a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line search is performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for a non-road version of the Sulzer S20 DI diesel engine which, for these simulations, is equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous injection system. This system permits an independent timing of the fuel pulses, and each orifice has its own diameter and injection direction.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Momentum Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

The discrete droplet model is widely used to describe two-phase flows such as high-velocity dense sprays. The interaction between the liquid and the gas phase is modeled via appropriate source terms in the gas phase equations. This approach can lead to a strong dependence of the liquid-gas coupling on the spatial resolution of the gas phase. The liquid-gas coupling requires the computation of source terms using the gas phase properties, and, subsequently, these sources are then distributed onto the gas phase mesh. In this study, a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method has been developed to evaluate the source terms and also to distribute these source terms onto the gas mesh. The focus of this investigation has been on the momentum exchange between the two phases. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are evaluated for non-evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Simulation and KH-RT Wave Model

This study presents diesel spray breakup regimes and the wave model basic theory from literature. The RD wave model and the KH-RT wave model are explained. The implementation of the KH-RT wave model in a commercial CFD code is briefly presented. This study relies on experimental data from non-evaporating sprays that have earlier been measured at Helsinki University of Technology. The simulated fuel spray in a medium-speed diesel engine had a satisfactory match with the experimental data. The KH-RT wave model resulted in a much faster drop breakup than with the RD wave model. This resulted in a thin spray core with the KH-RT model. The fuel viscosity effect on drop sizes was well predicted by the KH-RT wave model.