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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Mercury Switches in Underhood and Trunk Lamp Applications: A Detailed Environmental and Economic Analysis of Alternatives

1997-02-24
970698
The largest application of mercury in automotive applications occurs in underhood and trunk lamp activation switches. A reduction of mercury in this application will have a significant impact on automotive mercury usage. Using environmentally conscious design and manufacturing principles, this paper will investigate functional alternatives for the activation of underhood (U/H) and trunk lamp applications. Five alternatives to perform the activation function will be analyzed in four areas over their life cycles: Environmental Economic Engineering Manufacturing Each alternative will be ranked on criteria in each of these four areas using documented LCA processes. Totals will be generated for each area, then weighted and added to arrive at an overall score. Four groups of weightings will be used based on the vehicle type: small cars, mid-size cars, large/luxury cars, and trucks.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluating Spot Welds for Automotive Durability

1998-09-29
982277
The need for accurate virtual prototyping prediction is well documented in the literature. For welded body structures one notable shortcoming has been the ability for finite element analysis (FEA) to accurately predict the failure of welded joints due to cyclic loading. A new approach to representing spot-welds for durability evaluation in automotive sheet metal structures is presented here. Excellent correlation with spot-weld failures in actual tests have been observed through this modeling approach. We present a method of representing spot-welds using the finite element method. This method has shown to be able of predicting the behavior of spot-welds prior to the build of any prototypes or testing. Further, for spot-weld failures we present evidence that reveals which radial quadrant of the spot-weld will contain the failure. This method also allows engineers to determine the mechanism of failure. This paper describes in detail the spot-weld modeling method.
Technical Paper

Failure Evaluation of Clinched Thin Gauged Pedestrian Friendly Hood by Slam Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0789
In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Identification and Methods of Reducing Rear Window Buffeting Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2402
Rear Window Buffeting (RWB) is the low-frequency, high amplitude, sound that occurs in many 4-door vehicles when driven 30-70 mph with one rear window lowered. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the mechanisms of RWB are similar to that of sun roof buffeting and to describe the results of several actions suspected in contributing to the severity of RWB. Finally, the results of several experiments are discussed that may lend insight into ways to reduce the severity of this event. A detailed examination of the side airflow patterns of a small Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shows these criteria exist on a small SUV, and experiments to modify the SUV airflow pattern to reduce RWB are performed with varying degrees of success. Based on the results of these experiments, design actions are recommended that may result in the reduction of RWB.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Materials for Automotive Applications

2000-04-26
2000-01-1486
Substituting alternative materials for conventional materials in automotive applications is an important strategy for reducing environmental burdens over the entire life cycle through weight reduction. Strong, light carbon composites and lightweight metals can potentially be used for components such as body structure, chassis parts, brakes, tie rods, or instrument panel structural beams. There are also proposed uses in conventional and alternative powered vehicles for other advanced materials, including synthetic graphite, titanium, and metals coated with graphite composite, that have special strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, or conductivity properties. The approach used in this paper was to compare the environmental life cycle inventory of parts made from carbon fiber-thermoplastic composites, synthetic graphite, titanium, and graphite coated aluminum, with parts made from conventional steel or aluminum.
Technical Paper

A Robust Procedure for Convergent Nonparametric Multivariate Metamodel Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-1127
Fast-running metamodels (surrogates or response surfaces) that approximate multivariate input/output relationships of time-consuming CAE simulations facilitate effective design trade-offs and optimizations in the vehicle development process. While the cross-validated nonparametric metamodeling methods are capable of capturing the highly nonlinear input/output relationships, it is crucial to ensure the adequacy of the metamodel error estimates. Moreover, in order to circumvent the so-called curse-of-dimensionality in constructing any nonlinear multivariate metamodels from a realistic number of expensive simulations, it is necessary to reliably eliminate insignificant inputs and consequently reduce the metamodel prediction error by focusing on major contributors. This paper presents a robust data-adaptive nonparametric metamodeling procedure that combines a convergent variable screening process with a robust 2-level error assessment strategy to achieve better metamodel accuracy.
Technical Paper

Application of Modal Transient Dynamics to Calculate Body Fatigue Life

2001-10-16
2001-01-3087
The methodology of predicting analytical fatigue life of automotive body structures using two commercially available computer codes, NASTRAN and NCODE is described. Modal transient durability simulations are improved with use of residual vectors incorporating inertia relief basis functions. Simulations consisting of hundreds of thousand finite elements and hours of road loads are routine.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1028
This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization: A Practical Method for Efficient Material Selection and Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0809
As conventional vehicle design is adjusted to suit the needs of all-electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell powered vehicles, designers are seeking new methods to improve system-level design and enhance structural efficiency; here, multi-material optimization is suggested as the leading method for developing these novel architectures. Currently, diverse materials such as composites, high strength steels, aluminum and magnesium are all considered candidates for advanced chassis and body structures. By utilizing various combinations and material arrangements, the application of multi-material design has helped designers achieve lightweighting targets while maintaining structural performance requirements. Unlike manual approaches, the multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) methodology and computational tool described in this paper demonstrates a practical approach to obtaining the optimum material selection and distribution of materials within a complex automotive structure.
Journal Article

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1156
A task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee continues to pursue the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. The program is a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and is supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels, but correlations between laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. The primary objective of this project is to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates with in-service performance. In this paper the type, extent, and chemical nature of cosmetic corrosion observed in the on-vehicle exposures are compared with those from some of the commonly used laboratory tests
Technical Paper

Aerodynamically Induced Loads on Hood Latch and Hood Retention Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0657
Hood Latch Systems are regulated to have a secondary latch or secondary latching position, in order to retain the hood in case of partial or incomplete closure by the operator while driving the vehicle. On a vehicle with a front-opening hood, an incompletely closed hood can be lifted by incoming air flow and cause a 'hood fly-up' condition where the hood obscures the driver's vision and could lead to a higher risk of loss of vehicle control or forward collision. Many vehicles are equipped with hood ajar switches that will provide a warning to the driver if the hood is not latched, however most of these systems require some hood displacement from the full latch condition in order to provide a signal to the vehicle's driver.
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