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Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Wood-to-Wheels: A Multidisciplinary Research Initiative in Sustainable Transportation Utilizing Fuels and Co-Products from Forest Resources

Michigan Technological University has established a broad-based university-wide research initiative, termed Wood-to-Wheels (W2W), to develop and evaluate improved technologies for growing, harvesting, converting, and using woody biomass in renewable transportation fuel applications. The W2W program bridges the entire biomass development-production-consumption life cycle with research in areas including forest resources, bioprocessing, engine/vehicle systems, and sustainable decisions. The W2W chain establishes a closed cycle of carbon between the atmosphere, woody biomass, fuels, and vehicular systems that can reduce the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. This paper will summarize the activities associated with the Wood-to-Wheels initiative and describe challenges and the potential benefits that are achievable.
Technical Paper

Innovation Flow and Metrics Essentials

The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar’s Autonomous Journey - The Argument for Autonomy

Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continue to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
Technical Paper

Driver Performance Research Regarding Systems for Use While Backing

General Motors has pursued research to develop systems intended to assist drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them when they are backing, and this paper summarizes results from this research. We are currently working with ultrasonic rear parking assist systems, rear radar backing warning systems, and rear camera systems, which are briefly described and their utility for assisting drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them discussed. Our research on driver performance with a prototype long range backing warning system found that audible and visual warning combinations may not be effective in warning distracted drivers about unexpected objects. Driver expectancy is thought to play a significant role in this result. However, further research found drivers were more likely to notice an unexpected obstacle behind their vehicle with a prototype rear view video camera system compared to ultrasonic rear parking assist and trials that had no system.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of the UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts Vehicle Product System

A life cycle inventory (LCI) study evaluates the environmental performance of the ULSAB-AVC (UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts) vehicle product system. The LCI quantifies the inputs and outputs of each life cycle stage of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle (998 kg) over the 193,000 km service lifetime of the vehicle. The use phase of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-diesel engine variant (1031 kg) is also quantified. The data categories measured for each life cycle phase include resource and energy consumption, air and water pollutant emissions, and solid waste production. The ULSAB-AVC LCI study is based on the methods, model and data from the 1999 study by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), a consortium within the United States Council for Automotive Research. This model was modified to represent the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle for each life cycle phase as well as the use phase of the PNGV-diesel engine variant.
Journal Article

An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers

Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution. Both the newly proposed EAI and the Cavitation Aggressiveness Index (CAI), which has been previously proposed by the authors based on the total derivative of pressure at locations of bubble collapse (DP/Dt>0, Dα/Dt<0), are computed for a cavitating flow orifice, for which experimental and numerical results on material erosion have been published. The predicted surface area prone to cavitation damage, as shown by the CAI and EAI indexes, is correlated with the experiments.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Journal Article

Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
Technical Paper

Splashing Criterion and Topological Features of a Single Droplet Impinging on the Flat Plate

This paper aims to provide the experimental and numerical investigation of a single fuel droplet impingement on the different wall conditions to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. The experimental work was carried out at the room temperature and pressure except for the variation of the impinged wall temperature. A high-speed camera was employed to capture the silhouette of the droplet impinging on wall process against a collimated light. Water, diesel, n-dodecane, and n-heptane were considered as four different droplets and injected from a precision syringe pump with the volume flow rate of 0.2 mL/min at various impact Weber numbers. The impingement outcomes after droplet impacting on the wall include stick, spread, rebound and splash, which depend on the controlling parameters of Weber number, Reynolds number, liquid and surface properties, etc.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Crash safety researchers have increased concerns regarding thoracic injury causation and the contributing factors among the elderly population. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify the sternum morphomics as a function of age and (2) document sternum fracture trends using CT scans and crash data as a function of age. The morphomics analysis was extracted from 786 thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans from the University of Michigan Hospital to measure thoracic depth, sternum joint angle, thickness, and bone density. The sternum fractures were extracted from 62 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the used of crash cases and CT scan data. Morphomic analysis showed the sternum thickness increased from youngest to oldest age groups. Thoracic depth increased, with the exception of the 60-74-year-old age group.