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Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Conductive Polyphenylene Ether/Polyamide Blend for Saturn Exterior Body Panels

The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluating Spot Welds for Automotive Durability

The need for accurate virtual prototyping prediction is well documented in the literature. For welded body structures one notable shortcoming has been the ability for finite element analysis (FEA) to accurately predict the failure of welded joints due to cyclic loading. A new approach to representing spot-welds for durability evaluation in automotive sheet metal structures is presented here. Excellent correlation with spot-weld failures in actual tests have been observed through this modeling approach. We present a method of representing spot-welds using the finite element method. This method has shown to be able of predicting the behavior of spot-welds prior to the build of any prototypes or testing. Further, for spot-weld failures we present evidence that reveals which radial quadrant of the spot-weld will contain the failure. This method also allows engineers to determine the mechanism of failure. This paper describes in detail the spot-weld modeling method.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process at Caterpillar

Caterpillar uses heat treatment to enhance the properties of a significant number of parts. Traditional heat treat process optimization is both time consuming and expensive when done by empirical methods. This paper describes a computer simulation of the heat treatment process, developed by Caterpillar, based upon finite element analysis. This approach combines thermal, microstructural, and stress analysis to accurately model material transformation during quenching. Examples are presented to illustrate the program.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Diesel Engine Cylinder Head Gasket Joints

A nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element analysis of the cylinder head gasket joint has been developed to allow accurate prediction of global and local joint behavior during engine operation. Nonlinear material properties and load cases that simulate full cycle engine operation are the analysis foundation. The three-dimensional, nonlinear, full-cycle simulation accurately predicts cylinder head gasket joint response to assembly, thermal, and cylinder pressure loading. Predictions correlate well with measured engine test data. Analysis results include local pressure distribution and global load splits. Insight into joint loading and an improved understanding of overall joint behavior provide the basis for informed design and development decisions.
Technical Paper

Cell Balancing Algorithm Verification through a Simulation Model for Lithium Ion Energy Storage Systems

To support the market introduction of lithium ion energy storage systems for HEV and EREV applications, a process and tool was developed to expedite the verification of the lithium-ion cell balancing system across differing usage scenarios and cell imbalance rates. Presented is an overview of the cell imbalance analysis methodology and tool used in the development and verification of General Motors cell balancing systems. The use of this analysis methodology and tool has allowed for a cell balancing system optimization that would not have been possible with the use of actual energy storage systems because of the magnitude of lab or vehicle time required to execute the array of tests necessary to comprehend the large number of factors than can influence balancing.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Failure Evaluation of Clinched Thin Gauged Pedestrian Friendly Hood by Slam Simulation

In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
Technical Paper

Central Bus Guardian Application for Fault Isolation in System based on Flexray Protocol

The automotive system domain are in increasing motivation with benefits by using the x-by-wire technologies, which employ new electronic devices to provide for automobile system more facilities during processes at development, production, usability and maintenance. Considering at automobile user domain point of view, the next generation of automobiles can give users more comfort, safety and flexibility. However, for the safety critical applications at automobiles have as requirements the use of distributed embedded systems and fault tolerance methodologies where in communication infrastructure need to offer fault-tolerance communication services. Several researches regards fault tolerance communication systems for automotive domain are now in progress and a strong convergence in use of the Flexray technology is noted for the automotive community. The Flexray is one of the communication systems that had been proposed and available at AUTOSAR standard.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Analysis of Electrical Parameters for Design of Analog Circuits in Automotive Modules

The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
Technical Paper

Creating a Two Sided Customer Loss Function

In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two Sided Loss Function. The mathematics behind the creation of both one sided and two sided loss functions is based on Binary Logistic Regression [1,2,3] Analysis Techniques.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Technical Paper

A Robust Preignition Rating Methodology: Evaluating the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames under Real Engine Conditions

In this work, an experimental and analysis methodology was developed to evaluate the preignition propensity of fuels and engine operating conditions in an SI engine. A heated glow plug was introduced into the combustion chamber to induce early propagating flames. As the temperature of the glowplug varied, both the fraction of cycles experiencing these early flames and the phasing of this combustion in the engine cycle varied. A statistical methodology for assigning a single-value to this complex behavior was developed and found to have very good repeatability. The effects of engine operating conditions and fuels were evaluated using this methodology. While this study is not directly studying the so-called stochastic preignition or low-speed preignition problem, it studies one aspect of that problem in a very controlled manner.
Technical Paper

Refining Vibration Quality - A Study Characterizing Vehicle/Operator Interface Vibration on Snowmobiles and ATVs

Sensory jury testing was utilized to characterize vibration levels perceived by the operator, with respect to levels measured using instrumentation, in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of vibration at the operator interfaces. Details of the jury testing and jury data processing method are highlighted as well as the refinement of vibration characterization for a specific application. The vibration at user interface locations of both snowmobiles and ATVs was measured along with subjective feedback from a panel of jurists. Statistical analysis was performed on the jury data to provide both a qualitative and quantitative number to represent the opinion of the jury. Correlations were developed between the measured levels of vibration and the opinions of the jury. Finally, a set of correlation functions suitable for design predictions was developed.
Technical Paper

Integration of Independent Front Axles for Gear Mesh Energy

The need for improved axle NVH integration has increased significantly in recent years with industry trends toward full-time and automatic four wheel drive (4wd) systems. Along with seamless 4wd operation, quiet performance has become a universal expectation. Axle gear-mesh noise can be transmitted to the vehicle passenger compartment through airborne paths (not discussed in this paper) and structure-borne paths (the focus of this paper.) A variety of mounting configurations are used in an attempt to provide improved axle isolation and reduce structure-borne transmission of gear-mesh noise. The configuration discussed in this paper is a 4-point vertical mount design for an Independent Front Drive Axle (IFDA). A significant benefit of this configuration is improved isolation in the range of drive torques where axle-related NVH issues typically exist.
Technical Paper

Complementary Intersection Method (CIM) for System Reliability Analysis

Researchers desire to evaluate system reliability uniquely and efficiently. Despite its strong technical demand, little progress has been made on system reliability analysis in the last two decades. Up to now, bound methods for system reliability prediction have been dominant. For system reliability bounds, the second order bound method gives fairly accurate prediction for system reliability assuming that the probabilities of second-order joint events are accurately obtained. Two primary challenges in system reliability analysis are evaluation of the probabilities of second-order joint events and no unique system reliability for design optimization. Firstly, the greatest technical demand is found in an accurate and efficient method to numerically evaluate the probability of a second-order joint event.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of the Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer for Piston Gallery Cooling System

Numerical models are used in this study to investigate the oil flow and heat transfer in the piston gallery of a diesel engine. An experiment is set up to validate the numerical models. In the experiment a fixed, but adjustable steel plate is instrumented and pre-heated to a certain temperature. The oil is injected vertically upwards from an underneath injector and impinges on the bottom of the plate. The reduction of the plate temperature is recorded by the thermocouples pre-mounted in the plate. The numerical models are used to predict the temperature history at the thermocouple locations and validated with the experimental data. After the rig model validation, the numerical models are applied to evaluate the oil sloshing and heat transfer in the piston gallery. The piston motion is modeled by a dynamic mesh model, and the oil sloshing is modeled by the VOF (volume of fluid) multiphase model.