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Technical Paper

Applying Soot Phi-T Maps for Engineering CFD Applications in Diesel Engines

Soot modeling has become increasingly important as diesel engine manufacturers are faced with constantly tightening soot emission limits. As such the accuracy of the soot models used is more and more important but at the same time 3-D CFD engine studies require models that are computationally not too demanding. In this study, soot Phi-T maps created with detailed chemistry code have been used to develop a soot model for engineering purposes. The proposed soot model was first validated against detailed chemistry results in premixed laminar environment. As turbulence in engines is of major importance, it was taken into account in the soot oxidation part of the model with the laminar and turbulent characteristic time- type of approach. Finally, the model was tested in a large bore Diesel engine with varying loads. Within the steps described above, the proposed model was also compared with the well-known Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Diesel Spray Modeling and X-Ray Measurements

In this paper the KH-RT and the CAB droplet breakup models are analyzed. The focus is on near nozzle spray simulation data that will be qualitatively compared with results obtained from x-ray experiments. Furthermore, the suitability of the x-ray method for spray studies is assessed and its importance for droplet breakup modeling is discussed. The simulations have been carried out with the Kiva3VRel2 CFD-code into which the KH-RT- and the CAB- droplet breakup models have been implemented. Since the x-ray method gives an integrated line-of-sight mass distribution of the spray, a suitable comparison of the experimental distributions and the simulated ones is made. Additionally, modeling aspects are discussed and the functioning of the models demonstrated by illustrating how the parcel Weber numbers and radii vary spatially. The transient nature of the phenomenon is highlighted and the influence of the breakup model parameters is discussed.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Charge, Initial Flow Field and Fuel Injection Boundary Condition in the Multidimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines

Cylinder charge, cylinder flow field and fuel injection play the dominant roles in controlling combustion in compression ignition engines. Respective computational cylinder charge, initial flow field and fuel injection boundary affect combustion simulation and the quality of emission prediction. In this study the means of generating the initial values and boundary data are presented and the effect of different methods is discussed. This study deals with three different compression ignition engines with cylinder diameters of 111, 200 and 460 mm. The initial cylinder charge has been carefully analyzed through gas exchange pressure recordings and corresponding 1-dimensional simulation. The swirl generated by intake ports in a high-speed engine is simulated and measured. The combustion simulation using a whole cylinder model was compared with a sector model simulation result.
Technical Paper

Novel Two-Stroke Engine Concept, Feasibility Study

A novel two-stroke engine concept is introduced. The cylinder scavenging takes place during the upward motion of the piston. The gas exchange valves are similar to typical four-stroke valves, but the intake valves are smaller and lighter. The scavenging air pressure is remarkably higher than in present-day engines. The high scavenging air pressure is produced by an external compressor. The two-stroke operation is achieved without the drawbacks of port scavenged engines. Moreover, the combustion circumstances, charge pressure and temperature and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) can be controlled by using valve timings. There is good potential for a substantial reduction in NOx emissions through the use of adjustable compression pressure and temperature and by using the adjustable amount of exhaust gas re-circulation.