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Technical Paper

Determination of Source Contribution in Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

As noise concerns for snowmobiles become of greater interest for governing bodies, standards such as SAE J192 are implemented for regulation. Specific to this pass-by noise standard, and unlike many other pass-by tests, multiple non-standardized test surfaces are allowed to be used. Manufacturers must understand how the machines behave during these tests to know how to best improve the measured noise levels. Data is presented that identifies the contributions of different sources for different snowmobiles on various test surface conditions. Adaptive resampling for Doppler removal, frequency response functions and order tracking methods are implemented in order to best understand what components affect the overall measurement during the pass-by noise test.
Technical Paper

Refining Vibration Quality - A Study Characterizing Vehicle/Operator Interface Vibration on Snowmobiles and ATVs

Sensory jury testing was utilized to characterize vibration levels perceived by the operator, with respect to levels measured using instrumentation, in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of vibration at the operator interfaces. Details of the jury testing and jury data processing method are highlighted as well as the refinement of vibration characterization for a specific application. The vibration at user interface locations of both snowmobiles and ATVs was measured along with subjective feedback from a panel of jurists. Statistical analysis was performed on the jury data to provide both a qualitative and quantitative number to represent the opinion of the jury. Correlations were developed between the measured levels of vibration and the opinions of the jury. Finally, a set of correlation functions suitable for design predictions was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of an FRF Based Order Tracking Technique to Separate Close and/or Crossing Orders

A frequency domain order tracking method is developed that is able to separate both close and crossing orders. This method is based upon the multiple input H1 FRF estimator. The method can use either the actual tachometer pulse train or a simulated chirp function as an assumed input to formulate the FRFs which are actually order tracks. The advantages and disadvantages of using each type of assumed input are discussed. The performance of this method in both simple and complex order tracking cases is evaluated. Analytical datasets are used to evaluate the performance of these order tracking methods under a variety of operating conditions which include close orders. Finally, this paper will develop the necessary derivation to show the analytical relationship between the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform (TVDFT) and the FRF based techniques, one being an order domain method and one being a frequency domain method.
Technical Paper

Order Separation Using Multiple Tachometers and the TVDFT Order Tracking Method

An automobile and a tracked military vehicle were instrumented with multiple tachometers, one for each drive wheel/sprocket and operated with accelerometers mounted at suspension, chassis, and powertrain locations on the vehicles. The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform, TVDFT, order tracking method was then used to extract the order tracks and operating shapes estimated based on each tachometer. It is shown that under some conditions a different operating shape is excited by each of the wheels/sprockets simultaneously. This is due to the asymmetries present in the vehicles. The strengths of the TVDFT order tracking method are shown for this type of analysis, which is difficult due to the closeness, within 0.001 orders, and crossing of the orders. Benefits of using multiple tachometers and advanced order tracking methods become apparent for solving a class of noise and vibration problems.
Technical Paper

Quantifying How the Environment Effects SAE-J192 Pass-by Noise Testing of Snowmobiles

A study was performed to understand how the environment affects the results of J-192 pass-by noise testing of snowmobiles. This study involved measuring the sound pressure at 7 different microphone positions due to both speaker excitation and various snowmobiles passing through the microphone array. Simultaneous to the sound measurements, weather conditions were recorded including wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, snow depth, and in some cases ground hardness. All measured data was then used to determine which environmental factors influenced the measured sound pressures the most. Finally, a sound power approach was also used to measure the snowmobile pass-by noise to determine whether this method was more repeatable than the single microphone approach which showed variations of over 7 dBA over the course of testing.
Journal Article

Realization of Ground Effects on Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

Noise concerns regarding snowmobiles have increased in the recent past. Current standards, such as SAE J192 are used as guidelines for government agencies and manufacturers to regulate noise emissions for all manufactured snowmobiles. Unfortunately, the test standards available today produce results with variability that is much higher than desired. The most significant contributor to the variation in noise measurements is the test surface. The test surfaces can either be snow or grass and affects the measurement in two very distinct ways: sound propagation from the source to the receiver and the operational behavior of the snowmobile. Data is presented for a known sound pressure speaker source and different snowmobiles on various test days and test surfaces. Relationships are shown between the behavior of the sound propagation and track interaction to the ground with the pass-by noise measurements.