Life Assessment of PM, Gaseous Emissions, and Oil Usage in Modern Marine Outboard Engines
Recently, outboard engine technology has advanced significantly. With these new technologies comes a substantial improvement in emissions compared to traditional carbureted two-stroke engines. Some two-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) marine outboard engines are now capable of meeting California Air Resources Board 2008 Ultra-Low emissions standards. With improvement of gaseous emissions, studies are now being conducted to assess particulate matter (PM) emissions from all new technology marine outboard engines which include both four-stroke and two-stroke designs. Methods are currently being developed to determine the best way to measure PM from outboard engines. This study assesses gaseous and PM emissions, mutagenic activity of PM and oil consumption of two different technologies over the useful life of the engines.