Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

The Filtration, Oxidation and Pressure Drop Characteristics of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration – A 1D Modeling Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1274
Active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is affected by a number of parameters specifically particulate matter loading and inlet temperature. The MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model [1] was used to analyze these effects on the pressure drop, oxidation and filtration characteristics of a CPF during active regeneration. In addition, modeling results for post loading experiments were analyzed to understand the difference between loading a clean filter as compared to a partially regenerated filter. Experimental data obtained with a production Cummins regenerative particulate filter for loading, active regenerations and post loading experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. The model predicted results are compared with the experimental data and were analyzed to understand the CPF characteristics during active regeneration at 1.1, 2.2 and 4.1 g/L particulate matter (PM) loading and CPF inlet temperatures of 525, 550 and 600°C.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D CPF Model to Simulate Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-1283
A quasi-steady 1-dimensional computer model of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) capable of simulating active regeneration of the CPF via diesel fuel injection upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or other means to increase the exhaust gas temperature has been developed. This model is capable of predicting gaseous species concentrations (HC's, CO, NO and NO2) and exhaust gas temperatures within and after the CPF, for given input values of gaseous species and PM concentrations before the CPF and other inlet variables such as time-varying temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the CPF and volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on Particle Size Distribution from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0877
The effect of a Johnson Matthey catalyzed continuously regenerating technology™ (CCRT®) filter on the particle size distribution in the raw exhaust from a 2002 Cummins ISM-2002 heavy duty diesel engine (HDDE) is reported at four loads. A CCRT® (henceforth called DOC-CPF) has a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream (UP) of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The particle size data were taken at three locations of UP DOC, downstream (DN) DOC and DN CPF in the raw exhaust in order to study the individual effect of the DOC and the CPF of the DOC-CPF on the particle size distribution. The four loads of 20, 40, 60 and 75% loads at rated speed were chosen for this study. Emissions measurements were made in the raw exhaust chosen to study the effect of nitrogen dioxide and temperature on particulate matter (PM) oxidation in the CPF at different engine conditions, exhaust and carbonaceous particulate matter (CPM) flow rates.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0875
The objective of this research was to study the effects of a CCRT®, henceforth called Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter (DOC-CPF) system on particulate and gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) operated at Modes 11 and 9 of the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle Emissions characterized included: total particulate matter (TPM) and components of carbonaceous solids (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfates (SO4); vapor phase organics (XOC); gaseous emissions of total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2); and particle size distributions at normal dilution ratio (NDR) and higher dilution ratio (HDR). Significant reductions were observed for TPM and SOL (>90%), SOF (>80%) and XOC (>70%) across the DOC-CPF at both modes.
Technical Paper

An Advanced 1D 2-Layer Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model to Simulate: Filtration by the Wall and Particulate Cake, Oxidation in the Wall and Particulate Cake by NO2 and O2, and Regeneration by Heat Addition

2006-04-03
2006-01-0467
A numerical model to simulate the filtration and regeneration performance of catalyzed diesel particulate filters (CPFs) was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The mathematical formulation of the model and some results are described. The model is a single channel (inlet and outlet) representation of the flow while the thermal and catalytic regeneration framework is based on a 2-layer approach. The 2-layer model can simulate particulate matter (PM) oxidation by thermal and ‘catalytic’ means of oxidation with O2. Several improvements were made to this basic model and are described in this paper. A model to simulate PM oxidation by NO2/Temperature entering the particulate filter and oxidizing the PM in the two layers of the PM cake was developed. This model can be used to simulate the performance of filters with catalyst washcoats and uncatalyzed filters placed downstream of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), as in the continuously regenerating traps, CRT's®.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Using a 1-D 2-Layer Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-0466
Modeling of diesel exhaust after-treatment devices is a valuable tool in the development and performance evaluation of these devices in a cost effective manner. Results from steady state loading experiments on a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT®, performed with and without the upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) are described in this paper. The experiments were performed at 20, 40, 60 and 75% of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm) on a Cummins ISM 2002 heavy duty diesel engine. The data obtained were used to calibrate one dimensional (1-D) DOC and CPF models developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The 1-D 2-layer single channel CPF model helped evaluate the filtration and passive oxidation performance of the CPF. DOC modeling results of the pressure drop and gaseous emission oxidation performance using a previously developed model are also presented.
Technical Paper

An Efficient IC Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer Calculation for Cooling System Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0147
This study focuses on how to predict hot spots of one of the cylinders of a V8 5.4 L FORD engine running at full load. The KIVA code with conjugate heat transfer capability to simulate the fast transient heat transfer process between the gas and the solid phases has been developed at the Michigan Technological University and will be used in this study. Liquid coolant flow was simulated using FLUENT and will be used as a boundary condition to account for the heat loss to the cooling fluid. In the first step of calculation, the coupling between the gas and the solid phases will be solved using the KIVA code. A 3D transient wall heat flux at the gas-solid interface is then compiled and used along with the heat loss information from the FLUENT data to obtain the temperature distribution for the engine metal components, such as cylinder wall, cylinder head, etc.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Filtration and Oxidation Characteristics of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1123
An experimental and modeling study was conducted to study the passive regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) by the oxidation of particulate matter (PM) via thermal and Nitrogen dioxide/temperature-assisted means. Emissions data in the exhaust of a John Deere 6.8 liter, turbocharged and after-cooled engine with a low-pressure loop EGR and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in the exhaust system was measured and used for this study. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the DOC, CPF and DOC+CPF configurations at various engine speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2005-04-11
2005-01-0970
Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.
X