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Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

1998-02-23
980763
Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

1977-02-01
770086
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

2009-05-19
2009-01-2047
This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Particulate Thermal Oxidation in a Catalyzed Filter During Active Regeneration

2009-04-20
2009-01-1474
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a Cummins 2007 aftertreatment system by hydrocarbon dosing with injection of diesel fuel downstream of the turbocharger. The main objective was to characterize the thermal oxidation rate as a function of temperature and particulate matter (PM) loading of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Partial regeneration tests were carried out to ensure measureable masses are retained in the CPF in order to model the oxidation kinetics. The CPF was subsequently re-loaded to determine the effects of partial regeneration during post-loading. A methodology for gathering particulate data for analysis and determination of thermal oxidation in a CPF system operating in the engine exhaust was developed. Durations of the active regeneration experiments were estimated using previous active regeneration work by Singh et al. 2006 [1] and were adjusted as the experiments progressed using a lumped oxidation model [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0973
The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

Calibrating and Protecting Microphones to Allow Acoustic Measurements in Hazardous Environments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2163
Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
Technical Paper

Optical In-Cylinder Measurements of a Large-Bore Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2477
The objective of this study was to build up an optical access into a large bore medium-speed research engine and carry out the first fuel spray Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the running large bore medium-speed engine in high pressure environment. The aim was also to measure spray penetration with same optical access and apparatus. The measurements were performed in a single-cylinder large bore medium-speed research engine, the Extreme Value Engine (EVE) with optical access into the combustion chamber. The authors are not aware of any other studies on optical spray measurements in large bore medium-speed diesel engines. Successful optical measurements of the fuel spray penetration and the velocity fields were carried out. This confirms that the exceptional component design and laser sheet alignment used in this study proved to be valid for optical fuel spray measurements in large-bore medium-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1785
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

2016-04-05
2016-01-0224
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

2017-03-28
2017-01-0527
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Examination of Factors Impacting Unaccounted Fuel Post GDI Fuel Injector Closing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0300
The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location is a vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors are crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

2017-06-05
2017-01-1845
When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Piston Inter-ring Pressure on the Ring Pack Behaviour in a Medium Speed Diesel Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3847
The present work aims to determine the gas pressure acting in the ring pack area in a medium-speed four stroke diesel engine. The experimental part of the study was carried out as firing engine tests, with an instrumented piston, with telemetric data transmission, and an instrumented cylinder liner in a 6-cylinder test engine. The results, in terms of inter-ring gas pressure are compared with the results of computer simulations. Moreover, the computer simulations were carried out to predict and compare the effects of the piston running clearance and the ring face wear on the inter-ring pressures. The study comprises aspects on inter-ring pressures under a set of loads. The measured inter-ring gas pressures indicate steady ring operation. The simulation results show good agreement with measurement results.
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