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Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Technical Paper

Assessment of CFD Methods for Large Diesel Engines Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

A KIVA-based CFD tool has been utilized to simulate the effect of a Common-Rail injection system applied to a large, uniflow-scavenged, two-stroke diesel engine. In particular, predictions for variations of injection pressure and injection duration have been validated with experimental data. The computational models have been evaluated according to their predictive capabilities of the combustion behavior reflected by the pressure and heat release rate history and the effects on nitric oxide formation and wall temperature trends. In general, the predicted trends are in good agreement with the experimental observations, thus demonstrating the potential of CFD as a design tool for the development of large diesel engines equipped with Common-Rail injection. Existing deficiencies are identified and can be explained in terms of model limitations, specifically with respect to the description of turbulence and combustion chemistry.
Technical Paper

Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Considerations for Combustion Processes in the Simulation of DI Diesel Engines

A correction for the turbulence dissipation, based on non-equilibrium turbulence considerations from rapid distortion theory, has been derived and implemented in combination with the RNG k - ε model in a KIVA-based code. This model correction has been tested and compared with the standard RNG k - ε model for the compression and the combustion phase of two heavy duty DI diesel engines. The turbulence behavior in the compression phase shows clear improvements over the standard RNG k - ε model computations. In particular, the macro length scale is consistent with the corresponding time scale and with the turbulent kinetic energy over the entire compression phase. The combustion computations have been performed with the characteristic time combustion model. With this dissipation correction no additional adjustments of the turbulent characteristic time model constant were necessary in order to match experimental cylinder pressures and heat release rates of the two engines.
Technical Paper

Comparing Single-Step and Multi-Step Chemistry Using The Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion Model In Two Diesel Engines

Three-dimensional diesel engine combustion simulations with single-step chemistry have been compared with two-step and three-step chemistry by means of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion model using the Star-CD program. The second reaction describes the oxidation of CO and the third reaction describes the combustion of H2. The comparisons have been performed for two heavy-duty diesel engines. The two-step chemistry was investigated for a purely kinetically controlled, for a mixing limited and for a combination of kinetically and mixing limited oxidation. For the latter case, two different descriptions of the laminar reaction rates were also tested. The best agreement with the experimental cylinder pressure has been achieved with the three-step mechanism but the differences with respect to the two-step and single-step reactions were small.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.