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Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2003 Summary of Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3683
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published new emissions standards for snowmobiles, Federal Register 40 CFR, “Control of Emissions from Non-road Large Spark Ignition Engines and Recreational Engines (Marine and Land Based)”; Final Rule, Volume 67., No.217, November 8, 2002. These rules require a phase in of lower snowmobile emissions over the period of 2006 to 2012. In addition, the International Snowmobile Manufacturers' Association (ISMA) is developing new pass-by noise standards to replace the current wide-open throttle noise standard SAE J - 192 and J 1161. These new requirements set the stage for improvements in snowmobiles and form the basis for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC). SAE and Michigan Technological University (MTU) worked together, along with many other volunteers, to continue the SAE CSC, moving it from its original venue in Wyoming to Michigan.
Technical Paper

Reduction of the Environmental Impact of Essential Manufacturing Processes

1999-03-01
1999-01-0355
The drive of Design for the Environment is to reduce the environmental impact of both design and manufacturing processes. The most frequent method recommended is to substitute better materials and processes. However, there are processes that will continue to have undesirable environmental impacts due to the lack of knowledge of better methods. These processes are critical to manufacturing of products and can not be eliminated. All possible substitutions appear to have worse impacts. This paper explores modeling these processes and imposing a control method which permits an improvement of the environmental impact.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2005-04-11
2005-01-0970
Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1278
The effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC), an emulsified fuel, and their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations compared to those obtained when using a basefuel were studied. Particle size and particulate emission measurements were conducted at three operating conditions; idle (850 rpm, 35 Nm), Mode 11 (1900 rpm, 277 Nm) and Mode 9 (1900 rpm, 831 Nm) of the EPA 13 mode cycle. The individual effects of the emulsified fuel and the OCC as well as their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations were studied at two different particle size ranges; the nuclei (less than or equal to 50 nm) and accumulation (greater than 50 nm) modes. An OCC loaded with 10 g/ft3 platinum metal (OCC1) and a 20% emulsified fuel were used for this study and a notable influence on the particle size with respect to number and volume distributions was observed.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1277
A study was conducted to assess the effects of a water-diesel fuel emulsion with and without an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on steady-state heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Two OCCs with different metal loading levels were used in this study. A 1988 Cummins L10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine was operated at the rated speed of 1900 rpm and at 75% and 25% load conditions (EPA modes 9 and 11 respectively) of the 13 mode steady-state test as well as at idle. Raw exhaust emissions' measurements included total hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide (NO). Diluted exhaust measurements included total particulate matter (TPM) and its primary constituents, the soluble organic (SOF), sulfate (SO42-) and the carbonaceous solids (SOL) fractions. Vapor phase organic compounds (XOC) were also analyzed. The SOF and XOC samples were analyzed for selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Journal Article

Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
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