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Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0925
Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1785
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Procedure Development and Experimental Study of Passive Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2012-04-16
2012-01-0851
The passive oxidation of particulate matter (PM) in a diesel catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) was investigated in a series of experiments performed on two engines. A total of ten tests were completed on a 2002 Cummins 246 kW (330 hp) ISM and a 2007 Cummins 272 kW (365 hp) ISL. Five tests were performed on each engine to determine if using engine technologies certified to different emissions regulations has an impact on the passive oxidation characteristics of the PM. A new experimental procedure for passive oxidation testing was developed and implemented for the experiments. In order to investigate the parameters of interest, the engines were initially operated at a steady state loading condition where the PM concentrations, flow rates, and temperatures were such that the accumulation of PM within the CPF was obtained in a controlled manner. This engine operating condition was maintained until a CPF PM loading of 2.2 ±0.2 g/L was obtained.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Technical Paper

Examination of Factors Impacting Unaccounted Fuel Post GDI Fuel Injector Closing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0300
The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location is a vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors are crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Technical Paper

SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2003 Summary of Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3683
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published new emissions standards for snowmobiles, Federal Register 40 CFR, “Control of Emissions from Non-road Large Spark Ignition Engines and Recreational Engines (Marine and Land Based)”; Final Rule, Volume 67., No.217, November 8, 2002. These rules require a phase in of lower snowmobile emissions over the period of 2006 to 2012. In addition, the International Snowmobile Manufacturers' Association (ISMA) is developing new pass-by noise standards to replace the current wide-open throttle noise standard SAE J - 192 and J 1161. These new requirements set the stage for improvements in snowmobiles and form the basis for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC). SAE and Michigan Technological University (MTU) worked together, along with many other volunteers, to continue the SAE CSC, moving it from its original venue in Wyoming to Michigan.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of a High Performance, Four-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Motorcycle Engine into a Snowmobile Application

2005-10-24
2005-01-3678
For the 2003 and 2004 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenges, the successful implementation of a clean, quiet, high-performance four-stroke motorcycle engine into an existing snowmobile chassis was achieved. For the 2005 Challenge, a new motor and chassis were selected to continue the development of a four cylinder, four stroke powered snowmobile. The snowmobile is as powerful as today's production performance models, as nimble as production touring sleds, easy to start, and environmentally friendly. This report describes the conversion process in detail with actual dynamometer, emissions, noise, and field test data, and also provides analysis of the development processes and data. The vehicle meets the proposed 2012 EPA snowmobile emissions regulations and is significantly quieter than a stock snowmobile.
Technical Paper

Accelerometer Based Sensing of Combustion in a High Speed HPCR Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0972
The capability to detect combustion in a diesel engine has the potential of being an important control feature to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations and for the development of alternative combustion strategies such as HCCI and PCCI. In this work, block mounted accelerometers are investigated as potential feedback sensors for detecting combustion characteristics in a high-speed, high pressure common rail (HPCR), 1.9L diesel engine. Accelerometers are positioned in multiple placements and orientations on the engine, and engine testing is conducted under motored, single and pilot-main injection conditions. Engine tests are then conducted at varying injection timings to observe the resulting time and frequency domain changes of both the pressure and acceleration signals.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Diesel Spray Modeling and X-Ray Measurements

2006-04-03
2006-01-1390
In this paper the KH-RT and the CAB droplet breakup models are analyzed. The focus is on near nozzle spray simulation data that will be qualitatively compared with results obtained from x-ray experiments. Furthermore, the suitability of the x-ray method for spray studies is assessed and its importance for droplet breakup modeling is discussed. The simulations have been carried out with the Kiva3VRel2 CFD-code into which the KH-RT- and the CAB- droplet breakup models have been implemented. Since the x-ray method gives an integrated line-of-sight mass distribution of the spray, a suitable comparison of the experimental distributions and the simulated ones is made. Additionally, modeling aspects are discussed and the functioning of the models demonstrated by illustrating how the parcel Weber numbers and radii vary spatially. The transient nature of the phenomenon is highlighted and the influence of the breakup model parameters is discussed.
Technical Paper

Life Assessment of PM, Gaseous Emissions, and Oil Usage in Modern Marine Outboard Engines

2004-09-27
2004-32-0092
Recently, outboard engine technology has advanced significantly. With these new technologies comes a substantial improvement in emissions compared to traditional carbureted two-stroke engines. Some two-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) marine outboard engines are now capable of meeting California Air Resources Board 2008 Ultra-Low emissions standards. With improvement of gaseous emissions, studies are now being conducted to assess particulate matter (PM) emissions from all new technology marine outboard engines which include both four-stroke and two-stroke designs. Methods are currently being developed to determine the best way to measure PM from outboard engines. This study assesses gaseous and PM emissions, mutagenic activity of PM and oil consumption of two different technologies over the useful life of the engines.
Technical Paper

A Controlled EGR Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0076
In order to comply with 2002 EPA emissions regulations, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be used by heavy duty (HD) diesel engine manufacturers as the primary means to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A feedforward controlled EGR cooling system with a secondary electric water pump and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback has been designed to cool the recirculated exhaust gas in order to better realize the benefits of EGR without overcooling the exhaust gas since overcooling leads to the fouling of the EGR cooler with acidic residues. A system without a variable controlled coolant flow rate is not able to achieve these goals because the exhaust temperature and the EGR schedule vary significantly, especially under transient and warm-up operating conditions. Simulation results presented in this paper have been determined using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) software, which has been developed and validated using actual engine data.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays and Verification with Experimental Data

2002-03-04
2002-01-0946
Non-evaporating diesel sprays have been simulated utilizing the ETAB and the WAVE atomization and breakup models and have been compared with experimental data. The experimental penetrations and widths were determined from back-lit spray images and the droplet sizes have been measured by means of a Malvern particle sizer. The model evaluation criteria include the spray penetration, the spray width and the local droplet size. The comparisons have been performed for variations of the injection pressure, the gas density and the fuel viscosity. The fuel nozzle exit velocities used in the simulations have been computed with a special code that considers the effect of in-nozzle cavitation. The simulations showed good overall agreement with experimental data. However, the capabilities of the models to predict the droplet size for different fuels could be improved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Journal Article

Measurement of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion upon Different Nozzle Geometry using Hybrid Imaging Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1410
High pressure diesel sprays were visualized under vaporizing and combusting conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Near-simultaneous visualization of vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution were acquired using a hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging setup. This imaging technique used two pulsed LED's operating in an alternative manner to provide proper light sources for both shadowgraph and Mie scattering. In addition, combustion cases under the same ambient conditions were visualized through high-speed combustion luminosity measurement. Two single-hole diesel injectors with same nozzle diameters (100μm) but different k-factors (k0 and k1.5) were tested in this study. Detailed analysis based on spray penetration rate curves, rate of injection measurements, combustion indicators and 1D model comparison have been performed.
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