Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Sulfur Concentration on Regulated and Unregulated Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1993-03-01
930730
The effects of fuel sulfur concentration on heavy-duty diesel emissions have been studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, mode 9 (1900 RPM, 75% Load) and mode 11(1900 RPM, 25% Load). Data were obtained using one fuel at two sulfur levels (Low Sulfur, LS = 0.01 wt% S and Doped Low Sulfur DS = 0.29 wt% S). All tests were conducted using a Cummins LTA10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine. No significant changes were found for the nitrogen oxides (NOx), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and XAD-2 (a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) organic component (XOC) due to the fuel sulfur level increase at either engine mode. The hydrocarbon (HC) levels were not significantly affected by sulfur at mode 9; however, at mode 11 the HC levels were reduced by 16%. The total particulate matter (TPM) levels increased by 17% at mode 11 and by 24% at mode 9 (both significantly different).
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Porous Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

1983-02-01
830457
Physical, chemical, and biological characterization data for the particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine with and without Corning porous ceramic particulate traps are presented. Measurements made at EPA modes 3,4,5,9,lO and 11 include total hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and total particulate matter emissions including the solid fraction (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfate fraction (SO4), Chemical character was defined by fractionation of the SOF while biological character was defined by analysis of Ames Salmonella/ microsome bioassay data. The trap produced a wide range of total particulate reduction efficiencies (0-97%) depending on the character of the particulate. The chemical character of the SOF was significantly changed through the trap as was the biological character. The mutagenic specific activity of the SOF was generally increased through the trap but this was offset by a decrease in SOF mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Impact of EGR on Combustion Processes in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1039
With concerns continuing to grow with respect to global warming from greenhouse gases, further regulations are being examined, developed and are expected for the emission of CO2 as an automobile exhaust. Renewable alternate fuels offer the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 impact of transportation. Hydrogen as a spark - ignition (SI) engine fuel provides this potential for significant CO2 reduction when generated from renewable resources. In addition, hydrogen has advantageous combustion properties including a wide flammable mixture range which facilitates lean burning and high dilution, fast combustion energy release and zero CO2 emissions. However, the high burning rates and fast energy release can lead to excessive in-cylinder pressures and temperatures resulting in combustion knock and high NOx emissions at stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil and Miller Timing in a Medium-Speed CI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0862
The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance and the combustion of a large-bore single-cylinder medium speed engine running with hydrotreated vegetable oil. This fuel has a paraffinic chemical structure and high Cetane number. These features enable achievement of complete and clean combustion with different engine setups. The main benefits are thus lower soot and nitrogen oxides emissions compared to diesel fuel. The facility used in this study is a research engine, where the conditions upstream the machine, the valve timing and the injection parameters are fully adjustable. In fact, the boundary conditions upstream and downstream the engine are freely controlled by a separated supply air plant and by a throttle valve, located at the end of the exhaust pipe. The injection system is common-rail: rail pressure, injection timing and duration are completely adjustable.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Carbureted SI Engine Air Flow Measurements

2016-04-05
2016-01-1082
Measurement of internal combustion engine air flow is challenging due to the required modification of the intake system and subsequent change in the air flow pattern. In this paper, various surge tank volumes were investigated to improve the accuracy of measuring air flow rate into a 674-cm3, four-stroke, liquid-cooled, internal combustion engine. According to the experimental results, when the venturi meter is used to measure the intake air flow rate, an air surge tank is required to be installed downstream of the venturi to smoothen the air flow. Moreover, test results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit could have a negative effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling AFR is difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine changed with increasing tank volume, the air-fuel ratio was leaner for smaller tank volumes.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects

2015-09-29
2015-01-2808
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions while maintaining durability. Transforming part of the vehicle fleet to NG is a path to reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Directional Emissions Predictions of NOx and Soot of a Diesel ICE via Numerical Simulation

2015-09-29
2015-01-2880
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables prediction of premature failures and study of new promising concepts. In industry, numerical simulation has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests prior to spending resources on alternatives with lower likelihood of success. The internal combustion Diesel engine plays an important role in Brazil, since they are used extensively in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability. In this case, the most critical pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) or soot. The reduction of their levels without affecting the engine performance is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for guiding the combustion analysis by the prediction of NOx emissions and soot using numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit

2013-04-08
2013-01-1630
For spark-ignition gasoline engines operating under the wide speed and load conditions required for light duty vehicles, ignition quality limits the ability to minimize fuel consumption and NOx emissions via dilution under light and part load conditions. In addition, during transients including tip-outs, high levels of dilution can occur for multiple combustion events before either the external exhaust gas can be adjusted and cleared from the intake or cam phasing can be adjusted for correct internal dilution. Further improvement and a thorough understanding of the impact of the ignition system on combustion near the dilution limit will enable reduced fuel consumption and robust transient operation. To determine and isolate the effects of multiple parameters, a variable output ignition system (VOIS) was developed and tested on a 3.5L turbocharged V6 homogeneous charge direct-injection gasoline engine with two spark plug gaps and three ignition settings.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides Kinetics Based on Engine Experimental Data for a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter

2014-04-01
2014-01-1553
A numerical model to simulate the filtration and oxidation of PM as well as the oxidation of NO, CO and HC in a CPF was developed in reference [1]. The model consists of parameters related to filtration and oxidation of PM and oxidation of NO, CO and HC. One of the goals of this paper is to use the model to determine the PM and gaseous species kinetics for ULSD, B10 and B20 fuels using data from passive oxidation and active regeneration engine experimental studies. A calibration procedure to identify the PM cake and wall filtration parameters and kinetic parameters for the PM oxidation and NO, CO and HC oxidation was developed. The procedure was then used with the passive oxidation [2] and active regeneration [3] engine data. The tests were conducted on a 2007 Cummins ISL engine with a DOC and CPF aftertreatment system. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental CPF pressure drop, PM mass retained measurements and the outlet NO, NO2, CO and HC concentrations.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - Nozzle Included Angle Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0781
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost versus diesel fuel has increased interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and increase operating range while reduce harmful emissions and maintaining durability. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for light duty LD, and MD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe [1]. However, this technology exhibits poor thermal efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon that has prohibited its use for HD engines. Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) can be used to create a partially stratified combustion (PSC) mixture of NG and air during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

2017-03-28
2017-01-0527
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Knock Distribution in a Boosted Methane-Gasoline Blended Fueled SI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0215
The characteristics of combustion knock metrics over a number of engine cycles can be an essential reference for knock detection and control in internal combustion engines. In a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine, the stochastic nature of combustion knock has been shown to follow a log-normal distribution. However, this has been derived from experiments done with gasoline only and applicability of log-normal distribution to dual-fuel combustion knock has not been explored. To evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of log-normal distributed knock model for methane-gasoline blended fuel, a sweep of methane-gasoline blend ratio was conducted at two different engine speeds. Experimental investigation was conducted on a single cylinder prototype SI engine equipped with two fuel systems: a direct injection (DI) system for gasoline and a port fuel injection (PFI) system for methane.
Technical Paper

Examination of Factors Impacting Unaccounted Fuel Post GDI Fuel Injector Closing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0300
The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location is a vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors are crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Technical Paper

SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2003 Summary of Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3683
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published new emissions standards for snowmobiles, Federal Register 40 CFR, “Control of Emissions from Non-road Large Spark Ignition Engines and Recreational Engines (Marine and Land Based)”; Final Rule, Volume 67., No.217, November 8, 2002. These rules require a phase in of lower snowmobile emissions over the period of 2006 to 2012. In addition, the International Snowmobile Manufacturers' Association (ISMA) is developing new pass-by noise standards to replace the current wide-open throttle noise standard SAE J - 192 and J 1161. These new requirements set the stage for improvements in snowmobiles and form the basis for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC). SAE and Michigan Technological University (MTU) worked together, along with many other volunteers, to continue the SAE CSC, moving it from its original venue in Wyoming to Michigan.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle Operated on Alternative Fuels in Copenhagen

1999-10-25
1999-01-3603
A new diesel van with a reference weight of 1661 kg and a pre-chamber engine with a displacement of 2400cc was tested on a chassis dynamometer. The fuel consumption and emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, particulate matter and associated organic material (SOF) as well as PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) were measured under different driving conditions. The driving patterns used were recorded with a chase car at real traffic conditions on several roads in Copenhagen. The emissions were measured using different kind of diesel fuels as well as RME and biodiesel. CO, CO2, HC, and NOx levels generally decreased with increasing average speed of the driving cycle for all fuels tested. Cold start emissions were generally higher than for warm start.
X