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Technical Paper

A Method for Precise Placement of Hose Models

A method is presented for precise mounting of a hose model with any specified twist. Once mounting points and directions are specified, a hose of a specified length can be developed using discrete beams. A divide and conquer approach is employed to position, orient, decouple the free end of the hose model in a twist free state that is then twisted to a specified angle. The development of the kinematic elements necessary to do this is presented. Some Cosserat models have been shown to branch into multiple solutions while the method presented here has always converged to the minimum energy solution. The method for linking the hose model to other linkages is discussed as well one common error committed by users in implementing the link. In order to model the torsional properties of the hose, the torsional stiffness must be modified. A method for doing this using digital scans is discussed.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mounting Structure Stiffness on Mounting System Isolation Performance on Off-Highway Machines

Off-highway machine mounting system isolation, especially the cab mounting system, significantly affects the operator comfort by providing damping to the harsh inputs and isolating the structure-borne energy from traveling into the cab. Mounting system isolation performance is decided not only by the isolation component, but also the mounting bracket structure, and should be treated as a system. This paper gives a review of how the mounting system isolates structural energy and the effect of the bracket structure stiffness to the mounting system isolation performance.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
Technical Paper

Constant Power Load Characteristics in Multi-Converter Automotive Power Electronic Intensive Systems

Intensifying demands for higher fuel economy from one hand and environmental concerns from the other are driving advanced automotive power systems to be more electric. As a result, automotive electrical systems with higher capacity and more complexity are needed to cope with this expanding electrification trend. As different electrical applications and loads are being introduced in automobiles, multi-converter intensive power electronic systems are emerging as the next generation of the advanced automotive electrical systems. In fact, power electronic converters and electric motor drives are inevitable parts of more electric automotive power systems. When power electronic converters and electric motor drives are tightly regulated to improve system performance and efficiency, they present negative impedance characteristics of constant power loads to the entire automotive electrical system. This destabilizing effect may cause system instability.
Technical Paper

A Framework to Study Human Response to Whole Body Vibration

A framework to study the response of seated operators to whole-body vibration (WBV) is presented in this work. The framework consists of (i) a six-degree-of-freedom man-rated motion platform to play back ride files of typical heavy off-road machines; (ii) an optical motion capture system to collect 3D motion data of the operators and the surrounding environment (seat and platform); (iii) a computer skeletal model to embody the tested subjects in terms of their body dimensions, joint centers, and inertia properties; (iv) a marker placement protocol for seated positions that facilitates the process of collecting data of the lower thoracic and the lumbar regions of the spine regardless of the existence of the seatback; and (v) a computer human model to solve the inverse kinematics/dynamic problem for the joint profiles and joint torques. The proposed framework uses experimental data to answer critical questions regarding human response to WBV.
Technical Paper

Low-Voltage Switched Reluctance Machine Based Traction Systems for Lightly Hybridized Vehicles

This paper presents that low-voltage (42V) current intensive Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) based traction systems are feasible for lightly hybridized vehicles. Power electronic drive as well as electric machine issues are comprehensively addressed. Five different SRM drivers for low-voltage and high-voltage machines are studied. Suitability of the proposed low-voltage, high-current drives is elaborated. Furthermore, four machines with the rating of 7.5 kW are designed and simulated. These traction machines have 6/4 and 8/6 SRM configurations with the operating voltage of 42V and 300V. Higher torque density is the main advantage of the low-voltage machines compared to the high-voltage machines. In addition, 6/4 SRMs have better performance.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
Technical Paper

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge.
Technical Paper

Methodologies for Evaluating and Optimizing Multimodal Human-Machine-Interface of Autonomous Vehicles

With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, autonomous driving technology will finally reshape an automotive industry. Although fully autonomous cars are not commercially available to common consumers at this stage, partially autonomous vehicles, which are defined as level 2 and level 3 autonomous vehicles by SAE J3016 standard, are widely tested by automakers and researchers. A typical Human-Machine-Interface (HMI) for a vehicle takes a form to support a human domination role. Although modern driving assistance systems allow vehicles to take over control at certain scenarios, the typical human-machine-interface has not changed dramatically for a long time. With deep learning neural network technologies penetrating into automotive applications, multi-modal communications between a driver and a vehicle can be enabled by a cost-effective solution.