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Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Driving Schedules on the Drive Train Efficiency and Performance Characteristics of a Parallel Diesel-Hybrid Bus

2005-09-07
2005-01-3477
This paper aims at the modeling and performance simulation of a heavy-duty parallel diesel-hybrid transit bus over a variety of different drive cycles. Based on the simulation results, a comparative analysis is performed on the overall drive train efficiencies for the various driving patterns. The simulations are performed for 7 different driving patterns, which show varying results from the point of view of overall percentage drive train efficiency and performance parameters, such as acceleration and tail pipe emissions. Thus, through the studies conducted in this paper, the main goal is to evaluate the potential of the parallel diesel-hybrid transit bus under investigation. In addition, a critical parameter of the developed hybrid bus is the regenerative energy recovery. It is a well-known fact for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that the regenerative energy recovery potential is primarily dependent on its driving pattern.
Technical Paper

Constant Power Load Characteristics in Multi-Converter Automotive Power Electronic Intensive Systems

2005-09-07
2005-01-3451
Intensifying demands for higher fuel economy from one hand and environmental concerns from the other are driving advanced automotive power systems to be more electric. As a result, automotive electrical systems with higher capacity and more complexity are needed to cope with this expanding electrification trend. As different electrical applications and loads are being introduced in automobiles, multi-converter intensive power electronic systems are emerging as the next generation of the advanced automotive electrical systems. In fact, power electronic converters and electric motor drives are inevitable parts of more electric automotive power systems. When power electronic converters and electric motor drives are tightly regulated to improve system performance and efficiency, they present negative impedance characteristics of constant power loads to the entire automotive electrical system. This destabilizing effect may cause system instability.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Ultra-Capacitor and Battery Energy Storage System in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2005-09-07
2005-01-3452
This paper focuses on the effects of ultra-capacitors as a component of energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The main energy source in a hybrid vehicle is the battery. HEVs with battery sources are presently fairly effective; however, major drawbacks include the cost and size of such batteries. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of ultra-capacitors as a component of the energy storage system can reduce these drawbacks significantly by reducing the size of batteries required to drive the vehicle. To integrate ultra-capacitors into hybrid vehicles, the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) was used. The vehicle used to conduct this study was the 2004 Jeep Liberty sport utility vehicle (SUV). To simplify the analysis process, the conventional Jeep Liberty was modeled in ADVISOR to resemble the actual performance specifications of the SUV currently in the market.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program at Illinois Institute of Technology

2005-09-07
2005-01-3465
The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program engages multidisciplinary teams of students in semester-long projects, with a total of thirty to thirty-five different projects offered every semester. This program greatly contributes to IIT's signature undergraduate education experience, with each interprofessional course delivering a team-oriented, project-based requirement within the undergraduate curriculum. Among its many benefits, each interprofessional course offers students the opportunity to integrate the education and research environment of the university to tackle real-world problems. In the process, students get the chance to develop and emerge from the experience with maturity, confidence, and valuable professional skills that are highly sought after in the workplace, simultaneously preparing them for the realities of today's global, highly-competitive environment [1].
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Mobile Single-Phase AC Power Supply for Land Vehicles with 28V/200V Dual Voltage Alternators

2003-06-23
2003-01-2297
In land vehicles with high-power electrical loads, other than the low-voltage DC bus (14V, 28V, or 42V) for the low-power conventional loads, a high-voltage bus, e.g., 200V DC, is required for high-power loads such as hotel loads and electrically-assisted propulsion systems. In addition, some advanced electrical loads including luxury loads and AC power point require 120V, 60Hz AC voltage. These land vehicles include heavy duty, fire fighting, and military vehicles. There are two traditional approaches in obtaining a dual DC voltage bus system. The first one is to obtain the low-voltage DC from the alternator and boost it to the high-voltage DC. The second method is to obtain the high-voltage DC directly from the alternator and reduce it to the low-voltage. Both approaches require additional step-up or step-down power conversion stages, which inherently result in a reduced efficiency. In this paper, a new approach with a 28V/200V dual voltage alternator is considered.
Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

2001-08-20
2001-01-2465
With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Low-Voltage Switched Reluctance Machine Based Traction Systems for Lightly Hybridized Vehicles

2001-08-20
2001-01-2507
This paper presents that low-voltage (42V) current intensive Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) based traction systems are feasible for lightly hybridized vehicles. Power electronic drive as well as electric machine issues are comprehensively addressed. Five different SRM drivers for low-voltage and high-voltage machines are studied. Suitability of the proposed low-voltage, high-current drives is elaborated. Furthermore, four machines with the rating of 7.5 kW are designed and simulated. These traction machines have 6/4 and 8/6 SRM configurations with the operating voltage of 42V and 300V. Higher torque density is the main advantage of the low-voltage machines compared to the high-voltage machines. In addition, 6/4 SRMs have better performance.
Book

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

2009-09-21
Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, this second edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry. Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components. New to the second edition: o A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system o Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition o Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles o A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking
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