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Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis of V2G Impact on Battery Degradation

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE). The battery degradation model is an energy throughput model, which is developed based on the Arrhenius equation and a power law relationship between time and capacity fading.
Technical Paper

Integration of OpenADR with Node-RED for Demand Response Load Control Using Internet of Things Approach

The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
Technical Paper

Design, Control, and Power Management of a Battery/Ultra-Capacitor Hybrid System for Small Electric Vehicles

This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra-capacitors are used to meet the peak power demands during transients. Power management system determines the directions of power flow, according to load demand. Presented analyses validate the efficient power management methodology.
Technical Paper

Case Study of an Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Heavy Duty Electric Vehicle

In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Research on On-line Monitoring Methods of High Voltage Parameter in Electric Vehicles

Safety control and protection strategy of high-voltage system of electric vehicles include analysis of circuit condition before connection to high voltage terminal, transient current prevention for capacitive load, real-time monitoring and analysis of high-voltage system during operation, disconnecting strategy of high voltage terminals, vehicle dynamic safety and cooperative management of electrical systems, etc. Monitoring and analysis of some critical parameters of high voltage system such as insulation, electrical harness and connector condition are the basis and difficulties in high-voltage safety and protection. This paper presents several mathematical models of monitoring critical parameters, and experiments were also done to evaluate the model. Disadvantages of the commonly used calculation method are discussed. Single point insulation defect model is introduced and diagnosis method of multiple points defect is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program at Illinois Institute of Technology

The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program engages multidisciplinary teams of students in semester-long projects, with a total of thirty to thirty-five different projects offered every semester. This program greatly contributes to IIT's signature undergraduate education experience, with each interprofessional course delivering a team-oriented, project-based requirement within the undergraduate curriculum. Among its many benefits, each interprofessional course offers students the opportunity to integrate the education and research environment of the university to tackle real-world problems. In the process, students get the chance to develop and emerge from the experience with maturity, confidence, and valuable professional skills that are highly sought after in the workplace, simultaneously preparing them for the realities of today's global, highly-competitive environment [1].
Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, this second edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry. Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components. New to the second edition: o A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system o Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition o Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles o A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking