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Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

On the Suitability of a New High-Power Lithium Ion Battery for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

Due to the low cost of the battery cells and excellent performance at ambient temperature, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a promising technology for propulsion applications. However, the performance of Li-ion batteries erodes drastically at extreme temperatures (above 65 °C or below 0 °C). Therefore, in order to maintain battery life and performance, it is crucial to keep the batteries within the temperature range where their operating characteristics are optimal. The need for expensive and complex thermal management systems has in fact kept the Li-ion technology from becoming the first choice for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications. In this paper, we propose a Phase Change Material (PCM) for the temperature control. Due to its high heat capacity, PCM absorbs the heat dissipated by the battery. As long as the heat emitted by the battery does not melt the PCM completely, the system is stable.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Lithium Ion HEV Battery Aging Using Electrochemical Battery Model under Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion cobalt oxide battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging. Standard driving cycle with differing ambient temperatures is tested using developed HEV model.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Optimal Control of Power Split in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Driving Schedules on the Drive Train Efficiency and Performance Characteristics of a Parallel Diesel-Hybrid Bus

This paper aims at the modeling and performance simulation of a heavy-duty parallel diesel-hybrid transit bus over a variety of different drive cycles. Based on the simulation results, a comparative analysis is performed on the overall drive train efficiencies for the various driving patterns. The simulations are performed for 7 different driving patterns, which show varying results from the point of view of overall percentage drive train efficiency and performance parameters, such as acceleration and tail pipe emissions. Thus, through the studies conducted in this paper, the main goal is to evaluate the potential of the parallel diesel-hybrid transit bus under investigation. In addition, a critical parameter of the developed hybrid bus is the regenerative energy recovery. It is a well-known fact for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that the regenerative energy recovery potential is primarily dependent on its driving pattern.
Technical Paper

Development of the MTU Automatic Shifting Manual Six Speed Transmission

The purpose of this report is to describe the process for the development of the automatically shifting manual transmission control system hardware and software to be used in the MTU Challenge X Equinox, a through-the-road parallel hybrid electric vehicle. The automatically shifting manual transmission was chosen for development, as it combines the ease of use of an automatic transmission with the fuel efficiency of a manual, while eliminating the parasitic losses in the torque converter and the transmission hydraulic pump. This report illustrates the process used to develop the software-in-the loop modeling that was developed for the initial proof of concept. In addition, it describes the development of the control strategy and hardware build for the prototype transmission. To begin the design process research was preformed on existing automatically shifting manuals and manual transmissions in general. From there vehicle subsystems were assembled using Simulink block diagrams.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Ultra-Capacitor and Battery Energy Storage System in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

This paper focuses on the effects of ultra-capacitors as a component of energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The main energy source in a hybrid vehicle is the battery. HEVs with battery sources are presently fairly effective; however, major drawbacks include the cost and size of such batteries. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of ultra-capacitors as a component of the energy storage system can reduce these drawbacks significantly by reducing the size of batteries required to drive the vehicle. To integrate ultra-capacitors into hybrid vehicles, the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) was used. The vehicle used to conduct this study was the 2004 Jeep Liberty sport utility vehicle (SUV). To simplify the analysis process, the conventional Jeep Liberty was modeled in ADVISOR to resemble the actual performance specifications of the SUV currently in the market.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the 2002 Michigan Tech FutureTruck, a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

In this paper, the conversion of a production sport utility vehicle (SUV) to a hybrid electric vehicle utilizing a through-the-road parallel hybrid configuration is presented. The uniqueness of this design comes from its ability to decouple the front and rear drivetrain to simplify the packaging of underbody components. The Hybrid Theory utilizes a 2.0L, 4-cylinder engine that supplies 101kW (135hp) to the front wheels and a DC motor that supplies an additional 53kW (70hp) to the rear wheels to achieve the competition goals of a 25% improvement in fuel economy, a reduction in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, as well as maintaining stock performance. The effects on drivability, manufacturing, fuel economy, emissions, and performance are presented along with the design, selection, and implementation of all of the vehicle conversion components.
Technical Paper

Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control with Electronic Throttle Control (ETC)

This paper analyzes the control of the series-parallel powersplit used in the 2001 Michigan Tech FutureTruck. An electronic throttle controller is implemented and a new control algorithm is proposed and tested. A vehicle simulation has been created in MATLAB and the control algorithm implemented within the simulation. A program written in C has also been created that implements the control algorithm in the test vehicle. The results from both the simulation and test vehicle are presented and discussed and show a 15% increase in fuel economy. With the increase in fuel economy, and through the use of the original exhaust after treatment, lower emissions are also expected.

Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

Air pollution, global warming, and the steady decrease in petroleum resources continue to stimulate interest in the development of safe, clean, and highly efficient transportation. Building on the foundation of the bestselling first edition, this second edition updates and expands its detailed coverage of the vehicle technologies that offer the most promising solutions to these issues affecting the automotive industry. Proven as a useful in-depth resource and comprehensive reference for modern automotive systems engineers, students, and researchers, this book speaks from the perspective of the overall drive train system and not just its individual components. New to the second edition: o A case study appendix that breaks down the Toyota Prius hybrid system o Corrections and updates of the material in the first edition o Three new chapters on drive train design methodology and control principles o A completely rewritten chapter on Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking
Journal Article

The Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Analysis of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
Journal Article

Analysis and Control of a Torque Blended Hybrid Electric Powertrain with a Multi-Mode LTC-SI Engine

Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. The engine’s limited operating range can be improved by taking advantage of electrification in the powertrain. In this study, a multi-mode LTC-SI engine is integrated with a parallel hybrid electric configuration, where the engine operation modes include Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), and conventional Spark Ignition (SI). The powertrain controller is designed to enable switching among different modes, with minimum fuel penalty for transient engine operations.
Technical Paper

Route Optimized Energy Management of a Connected and Automated Multi-mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Dynamic Programming

This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of Charge Depleting (CD) and Charge Sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be drive purely electric. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method utilized is dynamic programming (DP) and is paired with a reduced fidelity propulsion system and vehicle dynamics model to enable compatibility with embedded controllers and be computationally efficient of the optimal blended operating scheme over an entire drive route.