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Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Technical Paper

Research on On-line Monitoring Methods of High Voltage Parameter in Electric Vehicles

Safety control and protection strategy of high-voltage system of electric vehicles include analysis of circuit condition before connection to high voltage terminal, transient current prevention for capacitive load, real-time monitoring and analysis of high-voltage system during operation, disconnecting strategy of high voltage terminals, vehicle dynamic safety and cooperative management of electrical systems, etc. Monitoring and analysis of some critical parameters of high voltage system such as insulation, electrical harness and connector condition are the basis and difficulties in high-voltage safety and protection. This paper presents several mathematical models of monitoring critical parameters, and experiments were also done to evaluate the model. Disadvantages of the commonly used calculation method are discussed. Single point insulation defect model is introduced and diagnosis method of multiple points defect is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Electrical Loads on 42V Automotive Power Systems

Demands for higher fuel economy, performance, reliability, convenience, as well as reduced emissions push the automotive industry to seek electrification of ancillaries and engine augmentations. In cars of the future, throttle actuation, steering, anti-lock braking, rear-wheel steering, active suspension and ride-height adjustment, air-conditioning, and electrically heated catalyst will all benefit from the electrical power system. Therefore, a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, is necessary to handle these new introduced loads. In this paper, an overview of the systems that will benefit from the 42V bus is presented. Effects of the new introduced electrical loads on the electrical power systems of conventional cars are described. Dynamic characteristics of each load for a typical drive cycle are defined. In addition, system level issues and vehicle performances such as fuel economy are addressed.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Mobile Single-Phase AC Power Supply for Land Vehicles with 28V/200V Dual Voltage Alternators

In land vehicles with high-power electrical loads, other than the low-voltage DC bus (14V, 28V, or 42V) for the low-power conventional loads, a high-voltage bus, e.g., 200V DC, is required for high-power loads such as hotel loads and electrically-assisted propulsion systems. In addition, some advanced electrical loads including luxury loads and AC power point require 120V, 60Hz AC voltage. These land vehicles include heavy duty, fire fighting, and military vehicles. There are two traditional approaches in obtaining a dual DC voltage bus system. The first one is to obtain the low-voltage DC from the alternator and boost it to the high-voltage DC. The second method is to obtain the high-voltage DC directly from the alternator and reduce it to the low-voltage. Both approaches require additional step-up or step-down power conversion stages, which inherently result in a reduced efficiency. In this paper, a new approach with a 28V/200V dual voltage alternator is considered.
Technical Paper

42V Automotive Power Systems

With the increase of hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) that necessitates a higher system voltage, such as the proposed 42V, for conventional cars. In this paper, the development of the 42V electric power system for vehicle applications is reviewed. The system architecture and motor drive problems associated with the 42V electric power system are analyzed. Solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Low-Voltage Switched Reluctance Machine Based Traction Systems for Lightly Hybridized Vehicles

This paper presents that low-voltage (42V) current intensive Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) based traction systems are feasible for lightly hybridized vehicles. Power electronic drive as well as electric machine issues are comprehensively addressed. Five different SRM drivers for low-voltage and high-voltage machines are studied. Suitability of the proposed low-voltage, high-current drives is elaborated. Furthermore, four machines with the rating of 7.5 kW are designed and simulated. These traction machines have 6/4 and 8/6 SRM configurations with the operating voltage of 42V and 300V. Higher torque density is the main advantage of the low-voltage machines compared to the high-voltage machines. In addition, 6/4 SRMs have better performance.