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Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Wood-to-Wheels: A Multidisciplinary Research Initiative in Sustainable Transportation Utilizing Fuels and Co-Products from Forest Resources

2008-10-20
2008-21-0026
Michigan Technological University has established a broad-based university-wide research initiative, termed Wood-to-Wheels (W2W), to develop and evaluate improved technologies for growing, harvesting, converting, and using woody biomass in renewable transportation fuel applications. The W2W program bridges the entire biomass development-production-consumption life cycle with research in areas including forest resources, bioprocessing, engine/vehicle systems, and sustainable decisions. The W2W chain establishes a closed cycle of carbon between the atmosphere, woody biomass, fuels, and vehicular systems that can reduce the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. This paper will summarize the activities associated with the Wood-to-Wheels initiative and describe challenges and the potential benefits that are achievable.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Intake Valve Dynamics on Knock Propensity in a Dual-Fuel SI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2236
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel engine which leverages a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s research octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gas concentrations due to valve overlap, and also affect the compression pressure and temperature by altering the effective compression ratio (eCR). In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. At 2000 rpm and 6 bar IMEP, the fuel RON requirement ranges from 80 to 90 as a function of the intake valve timing, and the valve timing can change the RON requirement from 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Solutions to the Clean Snowmobile Challenge - What Works?

2005-10-24
2005-01-3681
The Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2004 (CSC 2004) was held at Michigan Technological University in Houghton, Michigan, from March 15 - 20, 2004. The Clean Snowmobile Challenge has been a competition in the SAE Collegiate Design Series since 2000, and began in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, as a response to rising concerns about snowmobiling in environmentally-sensitive areas. Teams from fifteen universities competed in CSC 2004. The winning snowmobile (sled) was developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and featured a four-stroke engine with electronic fuel injection (EFI), a two-stage tuned muffler, and catalytic exhaust aftertreatment. A hybrid-electric design was used to increase the snowmobile's powertrain output and improve acceleration. [8] Teams should be competitive in all events to gain enough points to win the competition.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Engineering Education through University Competition-Based Events

2006-11-13
2006-32-0049
Engineering education at the University level is enhanced by competition-based projects. The SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge is a prime example of how competition-based engineering education benefits the small engines industry and improves the engineering talent pool of the nation in general. For the past several decades, SAE has encouraged young engineers to compete in designing off road vehicles (Baja SAE ®), small race cars (Formula SAE ®), remote control airplanes (Aero Design ®), high mileage vehicles (Supermileage ®) and robots (Walking Robot ®). Now a new competition, the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge ™ (CSC), based on designing a cleaner and quieter snowmobile has led to a new path for young engineers to explore the challenges of designing engines that emit less pollution and noise. The paper will summarize the results of the most recent Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2006 and document the successes of the past seven years of the Challenge.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program at Illinois Institute of Technology

2005-09-07
2005-01-3465
The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program engages multidisciplinary teams of students in semester-long projects, with a total of thirty to thirty-five different projects offered every semester. This program greatly contributes to IIT's signature undergraduate education experience, with each interprofessional course delivering a team-oriented, project-based requirement within the undergraduate curriculum. Among its many benefits, each interprofessional course offers students the opportunity to integrate the education and research environment of the university to tackle real-world problems. In the process, students get the chance to develop and emerge from the experience with maturity, confidence, and valuable professional skills that are highly sought after in the workplace, simultaneously preparing them for the realities of today's global, highly-competitive environment [1].
Technical Paper

Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control with Electronic Throttle Control (ETC)

2003-10-27
2003-01-3280
This paper analyzes the control of the series-parallel powersplit used in the 2001 Michigan Tech FutureTruck. An electronic throttle controller is implemented and a new control algorithm is proposed and tested. A vehicle simulation has been created in MATLAB and the control algorithm implemented within the simulation. A program written in C has also been created that implements the control algorithm in the test vehicle. The results from both the simulation and test vehicle are presented and discussed and show a 15% increase in fuel economy. With the increase in fuel economy, and through the use of the original exhaust after treatment, lower emissions are also expected.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Human Response From Vehicle Performance Characteristics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-05-07
2002-01-1570
This study investigates a methodology in which the general public's subjective interpretation of vehicle handling and performance can be predicted. Several vehicle handling measurements were acquired, and associated metrics calculated, in a controlled setting. Human evaluators were then asked to drive and evaluate each vehicle in a winter driving school setting. Using the acquired data, multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were used to create and refine mathematical models of human subjective responses. It is shown that artificial neural networks, which have been trained with the sets of objective and subjective data, are both more accurate and more robust than multiple linear regression models created from the same data.
Technical Paper

Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA), Tri-Correlation (TriC), and Misfire Detection

2005-04-11
2005-01-0647
In this paper, two correlations, Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA) and Tri-Correlation (TriC), are introduced and discussed. The WSMA is simpler than the conventional autocorrelation. WSMA uses less data points to obtain useful signal content at desired frequencies. The computational requirement is therefore reduced compared to the conventional autocorrelation. The simplified TriC provides improved signal to noise separation capability than WSMA does while still requiring reduced computational effort compared to the standard autocorrelation. Very often, computation resource limitation exists for real-time applications. Therefore, the WSMA and TriC offer more opportunities for real-time monitor and feedback control applications in the frequency domain due to their high efficiencies. As an example, applications in internal combustion (IC) engine misfire detection are presented. Simulation and vehicle test results are also presented in this paper.
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