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Journal Article

Assessment of Multiple Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1920
Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
Abstract The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Carbureted SI Engine Air Flow Measurements

2016-04-05
2016-01-1082
Abstract Measurement of internal combustion engine air flow is challenging due to the required modification of the intake system and subsequent change in the air flow pattern. In this paper, various surge tank volumes were investigated to improve the accuracy of measuring air flow rate into a 674-cm3, four-stroke, liquid-cooled, internal combustion engine. According to the experimental results, when the venturi meter is used to measure the intake air flow rate, an air surge tank is required to be installed downstream of the venturi to smoothen the air flow. Moreover, test results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit could have a negative effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling AFR is difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine changed with increasing tank volume, the air-fuel ratio was leaner for smaller tank volumes.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Optimal Control of Power Split in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1189
Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Abstract Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Journal Article

Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
Technical Paper

Understanding the Kalman/Vold-Kalman Order Tracking Filters' Formulation and Behavior

2007-05-15
2007-01-2221
The Kalman and Vold-Kalman order tracking filters have been implemented in commercial software since the early 90's. There are several mathematical formulations of filters that have been implemented by different software vendors. However, there have not been any papers that have been published which sufficiently explain the math behind these filters and discuss the actual implementations of the filters in software. In addition, upon generating the equations represented by these filters, solving the equations for datasets in excess of several hundred thousand datapoints is not trivial and has not been discussed in the literature. The papers which have attempted to cover these topics are generally vague and overly mathematically eloquent but not easily understandable by a practicing engineer.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Electro-acoustic Techniques for In-Situ Measurement of Acoustic Absorption Coefficient of Grass and Artificial Turf Surfaces

2007-05-15
2007-01-2225
The classical methods of measuring acoustic absorption coefficient using an impedance tube and a reverberation chamber are well established [1, 2]. However, these methods are not suitable for in-situ applications. The two in-situ methods; single channel microphone (P- probe) and dual channel acoustic pressure and particle velocity (Pu-probe) methods based on measurement of impulse response functions of the material surface under test, provide considerable advantage in data acquisition, signal processing, ease and mobility of measurement setup. This paper evaluates the measurement techniques of these two in-situ methods and provides results of acoustic absorption coefficient of a commercial artificial Astroturf, a Dow quash material, and a grass surface.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

2007-05-15
2007-01-2231
This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.
Technical Paper

Implementation of the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as a Real-Time Order Tracking Method

2007-05-15
2007-01-2213
The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform was implemented as a real-time order tracking method using developed software and commercially available hardware. The time variant discrete Fourier transform (TVDFT) with the application of the orthogonality compensation matrix allows multiple tachometers to be tracked with close and/or crossing orders to be separated in real-time. Signal generators were used to create controlled experimental data sets to simulate tachometers and response channels. Computation timing was evaluated for the data collection procedure and each of the data processing steps to determine how each part of the process affects overall performance. Many difficulties are associated with a real-time data collection and analysis tool and it becomes apparent that an understanding of each component in the system is required to determine where time consuming computation is located.
Technical Paper

The Calculation of Mass Fraction Burn of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels Using Single and Two-Zone Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0320
One-dimensional single-zone and two-zone analyses have been exercised to calculate the mass fraction burned in an engine operating on ethanol/gasoline-blended fuels using the cylinder pressure and volume data. The analyses include heat transfer and crevice volume effects on the calculated mass fraction burned. A comparison between the two methods is performed starting from the derivation of conservation of energy and the method to solve the mass fraction burned rates through the results including detailed explanation of the observed differences and trends. The apparent heat release method is used as a point of reference in the comparison process. Both models are solved using the LU matrix factorization and first-order Euler integration.
Technical Paper

Adequacy of Reduced Order Models for Model-Based Control in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0617
Model-based control strategies are important for meeting the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-SCR catalysts. To be implementable on the vehicle, the models should capture the essential behavior of the system, while not being computationally intensive. This paper discusses the adequacy of two different reduced order SCR catalyst models and compares their performance with a higher order model. The higher order model assumes that the catalyst has both diffusion and reaction kinetics, whereas the reduced order models contain only reaction kinetics. After describing each model, its parameter identification and model validation based on experiments on a Navistar I6 7.6L engine are presented. The adequacy of reduced order models is demonstrated by comparing the NO, NO2 and NH3 concentrations predicted by the models to their concentrations from the test data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of an Advanced Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filter

2008-04-14
2008-01-0622
A Cummins ISB 5.9 liter medium-duty engine with cooled EGR has been used to study an early extrusion of an advanced ceramic uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Data for the advanced ceramic material (ACM) and an uncatalyzed cordierite filter of similar dimensions are presented. Pressure drop data as a function of mass loadings (0, 4, and 6 grams of particulate matter (PM) per liter of filter volume) for various flow rate/temperature combinations (0.115 - 0.187 kg/sec and 240 - 375 °C) based upon loads of 15, 25, 40 and 60% of full engine load (684 N-m) at 2300 rpm are presented. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer computer model developed previously at MTU. Clean wall permeability determined from the model calibration for the ACM was 5.0e-13 m2 as compared to 3.0e-13 m2 for cordierite.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Results Comparing Two Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0484
Steady-state particulate loading experiments were conducted on an advanced production catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), both with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A heavy-duty diesel engine was used for this study with the experiments conducted at 20, 40, 60 and 75 % of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm). The data obtained from these experiments were used and are necessary for calibrating the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. These experimental and modeling results were compared to previous research conducted at MTU that used the same engine but an earlier development version of the combination of DOC and CPF. The motivation for the comparison of the two systems was to determine whether the reformulated production catalysts performed as good or better than the early development catalysts. The results were compared to understand the filtration and oxidation differences between the two DOC+CPF and the CPF-only aftertreatment systems.
Journal Article

Impact of Ice Formation in Diesel Fuel on Tier 4 Off-Road Engine Performance with High Efficiency Fuel Filtration

2015-09-29
2015-01-2817
Abstract The winter of 2013-2014 provided an opportunity to operate off-road vehicles in cold weather for extended time as part of a vehicle/tier 4 diesel engine validation program. An unexpected area of study was the performance of high efficiency, on engine, fuel filters during continuous vehicle operation in cold weather. During the program we observed unexpected premature fuel filter plugging as indicated by an increase in pressure drop across the filter while in service. Field and laboratory testing was completed at John Deere and Donaldson to understand the cause of filter plugging. Although conditions were found where winter fuel additives could cause plugging of high efficiency filters, premature filter plugging occurred even when testing with #1 diesel fuel. This fuel contained no additives and was used at temperatures well above its cloud point.
Technical Paper

Directional Emissions Predictions of NOx and Soot of a Diesel ICE via Numerical Simulation

2015-09-29
2015-01-2880
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables prediction of premature failures and study of new promising concepts. In industry, numerical simulation has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests prior to spending resources on alternatives with lower likelihood of success. The internal combustion Diesel engine plays an important role in Brazil, since they are used extensively in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability. In this case, the most critical pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) or soot. The reduction of their levels without affecting the engine performance is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for guiding the combustion analysis by the prediction of NOx emissions and soot using numerical simulation.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0806
Abstract Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - Nozzle Included Angle Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0781
Abstract The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost versus diesel fuel has increased interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and increase operating range while reduce harmful emissions and maintaining durability. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for light duty LD, and MD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe [1]. However, this technology exhibits poor thermal efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon that has prohibited its use for HD engines. Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) can be used to create a partially stratified combustion (PSC) mixture of NG and air during the compression stroke.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0271
Abstract This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures.
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