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Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Snow surface model for tire performance simulation

New tire model is under development in European Commission research project called VERT (Vehicle Road Tire Interaction, BRPR-CT97-0461). The objective of the project is to create a physical model for tire/surface contact simulation. One of the subtasks has been to develop a method for snow surface characterization. The aim is simulate winter tire on snow surface with FEM software. This kind of simulation has been earlier done with snow model parameters from laboratory experiments. A snow shear box device has been developed in Helsinki University of Technology to measure mechanical properties of snow in field conditions. Both shear and compression properties can be measured with the device. With the device, a large number of snow measurements have been done at the same time with VERT winter tire testing in Nokian Tyres'' test track in Ivalo Finland. Measurement data have been postprocessed afterwards and parameters for material models have been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Modeling Approach for a Wiremesh Substrate in CFD Simulation

Experimental studies have shown that knitted wiremesh mixers reduce the formation of solid deposits and improve ammonia homogenization in automotive SCR systems. However, their implementation in CFD models remains a major challenge due to the complex WM geometry. It was the aim of the current study to investigate droplet WM interaction. Essential processes, such as secondary droplet generation, wall film formation, and heat exchange, were analyzed in detail and a numerical model was set up. A box with heat resisting glass was used to study urea-water solution spray impingement on a WM under a wide range of operating conditions. High speed videography was used to identify the impingement regimes. Infrared thermography was applied to investigate WM cooling. In order to determine the impact of the WM on the spray characteristics, the droplet spectrum was measured both upstream and downstream of the WM using the laser diffraction method.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
Technical Paper

Refining Vibration Quality - A Study Characterizing Vehicle/Operator Interface Vibration on Snowmobiles and ATVs

Sensory jury testing was utilized to characterize vibration levels perceived by the operator, with respect to levels measured using instrumentation, in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of vibration at the operator interfaces. Details of the jury testing and jury data processing method are highlighted as well as the refinement of vibration characterization for a specific application. The vibration at user interface locations of both snowmobiles and ATVs was measured along with subjective feedback from a panel of jurists. Statistical analysis was performed on the jury data to provide both a qualitative and quantitative number to represent the opinion of the jury. Correlations were developed between the measured levels of vibration and the opinions of the jury. Finally, a set of correlation functions suitable for design predictions was developed.
Technical Paper

Complementary Intersection Method (CIM) for System Reliability Analysis

Researchers desire to evaluate system reliability uniquely and efficiently. Despite its strong technical demand, little progress has been made on system reliability analysis in the last two decades. Up to now, bound methods for system reliability prediction have been dominant. For system reliability bounds, the second order bound method gives fairly accurate prediction for system reliability assuming that the probabilities of second-order joint events are accurately obtained. Two primary challenges in system reliability analysis are evaluation of the probabilities of second-order joint events and no unique system reliability for design optimization. Firstly, the greatest technical demand is found in an accurate and efficient method to numerically evaluate the probability of a second-order joint event.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Study of a High Power Density Diesel Engine

The development of diesel engines is constantly leading to greater increases in the power density. The heat load into the combustion chamber walls increases with the increased power density. Estimating correct local heat fluxes inside the combustion chamber is one of the most challenging tasks in engine simulation. In this study, the heat load of the piston was estimated with the help of the modern simulation tools CFD and FEM. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal stress of a research engine designed for an exceptionally high maximum and mean pressure. The local heat transfer coefficient and gas temperature were simulated with a CFD code with the standard and modified wall functions and used as boundary values for the FEM analysis. As a reference case, a model of a production engine with measured piston surface temperatures was used to validate the combined CFD and FEM analysis.
Journal Article

TMF Life Prediction of High Temperature Components Made of Cast Iron HiSiMo: Part II: Multiaxial Implementation and Component Assessment

HiSiMo cast irons are frequently used as material for high temperature components in engines as e.g. exhaust manifolds and turbo chargers. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their life cycle. The combination of thermal transients with mechanical load cycles results in a complex evolution of damage, leading to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the material and, after a certain number of loading cycles, to failure of the component. In Part I of the paper, a fracture mechanics model for TMF life prediction was developed based on results of uniaxial tests. In this paper (Part II), the model is formulated for three-dimensional stress states, so that it can be applied in a post-processing step of a finite-element analysis. To obtain reliable stresses and (time dependent plastic) strains in the finite-element calculation, a time and temperature dependent plasticity model is applied which takes non-linear kinematic hardening into account.
Journal Article

Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
Technical Paper

A Variable Displacement Engine with Independently Controllable Stroke Length and Compression Ratio

A variable displacement engine with the capability to vary stroke length and compression ratio independent of one another has been designed, prototyped, and successfully operated. Reasons for investigation of such an engine are the potential for improvement in fuel economy and/or performance. Literature has shown that engines with variable compression ratio can significantly decrease specific fuel consumption. Engines with variability in stroke length can maintain peak efficiency running conditions by adjusting power output through displacement change verses through the efficiency detriment of throttling. The project began with the synthesis of a planar 2-dimensional rigid body mechanism. Various synthesis techniques were employed and design took place with a collection of computer software. MATLAB code performed much of the synthesis, kinematic, and dynamic analysis.
Journal Article

Ionization Signal Response during Combustion Knock and Comparison to Cylinder Pressure for SI Engines

In-cylinder ion sensing is a subject of interest due to its application in spark-ignited (SI) engines for feedback control and diagnostics including: combustion knock detection, rate and phasing of combustion, and mis-fire On Board Diagnostics (OBD). Further advancement and application is likely to continue as the result of the availability of ignition coils with integrated ion sensing circuitry making ion sensing more versatile and cost effective. In SI engines, combustion knock is controlled through closed loop feedback from sensor metrics to maintain knock near the borderline, below engine damage and NVH thresholds. Combustion knock is one of the critical applications for ion sensing in SI engines and improvement in knock detection offers the potential for increased thermal efficiency. This work analyzes and characterizes the ionization signal in reference to the cylinder pressure signal under knocking and non-knocking conditions.