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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Technology Evolution

1996-07-01
961475
The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS) includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies for Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Waste Management (WM), and Vacuum System (VS). The U.S. Lab module will contain complete THC and ACS subsystems and an open loop AR including a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS), and a Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). An Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) is added with the U. S. Hab module, along with the WRM and WM subsystems. The final baseline configuration is a closed water loop and partially closed atmosphere loop and represents the best available mature technologies.
Technical Paper

Mir Space Station Trace Contaminant Assessment

1996-07-01
961472
Eight SUMMA passivated sampling canisters were shipped to the Russian Space Station Mir in February of 1995 to assess ambient trace contaminant concentrations. Prior to flight, the canisters were injected with isotope labeled surrogates and internal standards to measure potential negative impacts on measurement accuracy caused by the trip environmental conditions of launch and return. Three duplicate canister samples were collected in parallel with Russian sorbent samples to acquire data for comparative purposes. A total of 32 target and 13 non-target volatile compounds were detected in each of the samples analyzed. The concentrations of the compounds remained relatively consistent for the three sampling events, and all of the concentrations of detected contaminants were well below both US and Russian Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC). Five different fluorocarbons were consistently detected at relatively high concentrations.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Role of Human Testing of Life Support Systems

1996-07-01
961474
The appropriate role of human testing in life support systems design has been a key concern for human spacecraft development. This discussion intensified over the past one and a half years as the International Space Station (ISS) evaluated the risk associated with the baseline program while conducting cost and schedule convergence activities. The activity was carried from the traditional top-level discussion to evaluation of the specific Space Station Life Support concerns associated with human interaction, weighed against cost impacts. This paper details the results of this activity, providing the rationale for the present ISS approach.
Technical Paper

Space Station Regenerative Life Support Risk Mitigation Through Microgravity Flight Experiment Demonstrations

1996-07-01
961513
Flight experiments are being developed to assess the microgravity performance of U.S.-developed physical/chemical life support technologies baselined for operation on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments will take advantage of flight opportunities available on the Space Shuttle prior to the production of ISS flight systems. Early microgravity demonstrations of these technologies will allow the ISS life support system to be developed from flight-proven processes, thereby reducing programmatic risks and enhancing overall life support efficiencies. This paper will provide an overview of the life support flight experiment program.
Technical Paper

Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System

1997-07-01
972332
The assembly complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the U.S. and International partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Waste Management (WM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A comprehensive summary of resources consumed by the U.S.
Technical Paper

Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

1997-07-01
972331
The paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station(ISS).Current activities computer model development, component design and development, subsystem/integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Phase III Integrated Water Recovery Testing at MSFC: International Space Station Recipient Mode Test Results and Lessons Learned

1997-07-01
972375
A test has been completed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system and Waste Management (WM) urinal design for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS). Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 128 days in recipient mode configuration to evaluate the accumulation of contaminants in the water system and to assess the performance of various modifications to the WRM and WM hardware. No accumulation of contaminants were detected in the product water over the course of the recipient mode test. An additional 18 days were conducted in donor mode to assess the ability of the system to removal viral contaminants, to monitor the breakthrough of organic contaminants through the multifiltration bed, and for resolving anomalies that occurred during the test.
Technical Paper

Phase III Integrated Water Recovery Testing at MSFC: International Space Station Configuration Test Results and Lessons Learned

1995-07-01
951586
A test has been completed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the latest Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system and Waste Management (WM) urinal design for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) with higher fidelity hardware and integration than has been achieved in previous integrated tests. Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 116 days to evaluate the impacts of changes made as a result of the redesign from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to the ISS. This testing marked the first occasion in which the WRM was automated at the system level, allowing for evaluation of the hardware performance under ISS operating conditions. It was also the first time a “flight-like” Process Control Water Quality Monitor (PCWQM) and a WM urinal were tested in an integrated system.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Condensate from the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF)

1994-06-01
941506
Life Sciences research on Space Station will utilize rats to study the effects of the microgravity environment on mammalian physiology and to develop countermeasures to those effects for the health and safety of the crew. The animals will produce metabolic water which must be reclaimed to minimize logistics support. The condensate from the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) in October 1993 was used as an analog to determine the type and quantity of constituents which the Space Station (SS) water reclamation system will have to process. The most significant organics present in the condensate were 2-propanol, glycerol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, acetic acid, acetone, total proteins, urea and caprolactam while the most significant inorganic was ammonia. Microbial isolates included Xanthomonas, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Chrysosporium.
Technical Paper

Process Material Management in the Space Station Environment

1988-07-01
880996
The Space Station provides a unique facility for conducting material processing and life science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed in addition to discussing the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design. The system contains a fluid handling subsystem which manages process fluids required by each experiment while a chemical storage facility safely stores potentially hazardous chemicals.
Technical Paper

Results of an Electrical Power System Fault Study

1992-08-03
929096
NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Among the elements studied are the Remote Power Controllers (RPC), the algorithms in the control computers and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults was performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study were applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System Breadboard (LASEPS). The results of the study into the most common electrical power system faults was presented in two papers at this conference during the last two years;* the remainder of the results of this study are to be presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS)

1992-08-03
929330
NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Design of a 4 Wheel Steer-4 Wheel Hydrostatic Drive All-Terrain Vehicle for REV-74

1975-02-01
750144
Recreational Ecological Vehicle (REV) 74 was an intercollegiate All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) design competition organized by the Milwaukee and Cincinnati Sections of SAE. Students from six colleges built ATV's to compete May 30-June 1, 1974 at Michigan Technological University's Keweenaw Research Center test course. Competing categories of noise level, destructiveness to terrain and a 25 mile race over land and water are discussed from the viewpoint of the technical rules and as to the actual course involved with the competition. Michigan Tech designed and built a 4 wheel steer-4 wheel hydrostatic drive ATV for REV-74. This paper provides a detailed design description of the Michigan Tech vehicle along with a review of several production ATV designs and their specifications. Finally, a report of the results of REV-74 is presented.
Technical Paper

Phase III Integrated Water Recovery Testing at MSFC: Single Loop Test Results and Lessons Learned

1993-07-01
932048
A series of tests has been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the performance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water recovery system. Potable and urine reclamation processors were integrated with waste water generation equipment and successfully operated for a total of 144 days. This testing marked the first occasion in which the waste feed sources for previous potable and hygiene loops were combined into a single loop and processed to potable water quality. Reclaimed potable water from the combined waste waters routinely met the SSF water quality specifications. In the last stage of this testing, data was obtained that indicated that the Water Processor (WP) presterilizer may not be required to meet the potable water quality specification.
Technical Paper

OPAD Status Report: Investigation of SSME Component Erosion

1992-04-01
921030
Significant erosion of preburner faceplates was observed during recent Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test firings at the NASA Technology Test Bed (TTB), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Al. The OPAD instrumentation acquired exhaust plume spectral data during each test which indicate the occurrence of metallic species consistent with faceplate component composition. A qualitative analysis of the spectral data was conducted to evaluate the state of the engine versus time for each test according to the nominal conditions of TTB firing #17 and #18. In general the analyses indicate abnormal erosion levels at or near startup. Subsequent to the initial erosion event, signal levels tend to decrease towards nominal baseline values. These findings, in conjunction with post-test engine inspections, suggest that in cases under study, the erosion may not have been catastrophic to the immediate operation of the engine.
Technical Paper

Liquid Propulsion Turbomachinery Model Testing

1992-04-01
921029
For the past few years an extensive experimental program to understand the fluid dynamics of the Space Shuttle Main Engine hot gas manifold has been in progress at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This program includes models of the Phase II and II+ manifolds for each of the air and water flow facilities, as well as two different turbine flow paths and two simulated power levels for each manifold. All models are full scale (geometric). The water models are constructed partially of acrylic to allow flow visualization. The intent of this paper is to discuss the concept, including the test objectives, the facilities, and the models, and to summarize the data for an example configuration, including static pressure data, flow visualization, and the solution of a specific flow problem.
Technical Paper

Phase III Integrated Water Recovery Testing at MSFC: Closed Hygiene and Potable Loop Test Results and Lesson Learned

1992-07-01
921117
A series of tests has been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate the performance of a Space Station Freedom (SSF) pre-development water recovery system. Potable, hygiene, and urine reclamation subsystems were integrated with end-use equipment items and successfully operated for a total of 35 days, including 23 days in closed-loop mode with man-in-the-loop. Although several significant subsystem physical anomalies were encountered, reclaimed potable and hygiene water routinely met current SSF water quality specifications. This paper summarizes the test objectives, system design, test activities/protocols, significant results/anomalies, and major lessons learned.
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