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Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0553
Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Journal Article

Comparison of Direct-Injection Spray Development of E10 Gasoline to a Single and Multi-Component E10 Gasoline Surrogate

2017-03-28
2017-01-0833
Optical and laser diagnostics enable in-depth spray characterization in regards to macroscopic spray characteristics and in-situ fuel mixture quality information, which are needed in understanding the spray injection process and for spray model development, validation and calibration. Use of fuel surrogates in spray researches is beneficial in controlling fuel parameters, developing spray and combustion kinetic models, and performing laser diagnostics with known fluorescence characteristics. This study quantifies and evaluates the macroscopic spray characteristics of a single and multi-component surrogate in comparison to a gasoline with 10% ethanol under gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine conditions. In addition, the effect of fuel tracers on spray evolution and vaporization is also investigated. Both diethyl-methyl-amine/fluorobenzene as a laser-induced exciplex (LIEF) fluorescence tracer pair and 3-pentanone as a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracer are examined.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplet, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, four different conditions for diesel droplet impingement were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray-Wall Interaction and Morphology around Impingement Location

2018-04-03
2018-01-0276
The necessity to study spray-wall interaction in internal combustion engines is driven by the evidence that fuel sprays impinge on chamber and piston surfaces resulting in the formation of wall films. This, in turn, may influence the air-fuel mixing and increase the hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. This work reports an experimental and numerical study on spray-wall impingement and liquid film formation in a constant volume combustion vessel. Diesel and n-heptane were selected as test fuels and injected from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector at injection pressures of 120, 150, and 180 MPa on a flat transparent window. Ambient and plate temperatures were set at 423 K, the fuel temperature at 363 K, and the ambient densities at 14.8, 22.8, and 30 kg/m3. Simultaneous Mie scattering and schlieren imaging were carried out in the experiment to perform a visual tracking of the spray-wall interaction process from different perspectives.
Journal Article

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate

2017-03-28
2017-01-0854
Combustion systems with advanced injection strategies have been extensively studied, but there still exists a significant fundamental knowledge gap on fuel spray interactions with the piston surface and chamber walls. This paper is meant to provide detailed data on spray-wall impingement physics and support the spray-wall model development. The experimental work of spray-wall impingement with non-vaporizing spray characterization, was carried out in a high pressure-temperature constant-volume combustion vessel. The simultaneous Mie scattering of liquid spray and schlieren of liquid and vapor spray were carried out. Diesel fuel was injected at a pressure of 1500 bar into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3 with isothermal conditions (fuel, ambient, and plate temperatures of 423 K). A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach was employed to characterize the spray-gas and spray-wall interactions in the CONVERGETM framework by means of a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Impinging Spray Film Formation Characteristics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0312
Fuel film formed in the spray-piston or cylinder wall impingement plays a critical role in engine performance and emissions. In this paper, the fuel film formation and the relevant film characteristics resulting from the liquid spray impinging on a flat plate were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by Refractive Index Matching (RIM) technique. The liquid film thickness was firstly calibrated with two different proportional mixtures (5% n-dodecane and 95% n-heptane; 10% n-dodecane and 90% n-heptane by volume) pumped out from a precise syringe to achieve an accurate calibration. After calibration, n-heptane fuel from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector was then injected on a roughened glass with the same optical setup. The ambient temperature and the plate temperature are set to 423 K with the fuel temperature of 363 K.
Technical Paper

Splashing Criterion and Topological Features of a Single Droplet Impinging on the Flat Plate

2018-04-03
2018-01-0289
This paper aims to provide the experimental and numerical investigation of a single fuel droplet impingement on the different wall conditions to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. The experimental work was carried out at the room temperature and pressure except for the variation of the impinged wall temperature. A high-speed camera was employed to capture the silhouette of the droplet impinging on wall process against a collimated light. Water, diesel, n-dodecane, and n-heptane were considered as four different droplets and injected from a precision syringe pump with the volume flow rate of 0.2 mL/min at various impact Weber numbers. The impingement outcomes after droplet impacting on the wall include stick, spread, rebound and splash, which depend on the controlling parameters of Weber number, Reynolds number, liquid and surface properties, etc.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Impingement Dynamics of Single Droplet Impacting on a Flat Surface

2019-01-15
2019-01-0064
The liquid fuel spray impingement onto surfaces occurs in both spark ignited and compression ignited engines. It causes a fundamental issue affecting the preparation of air-fuel mixture prior to the combustion, further, affecting engine performance and emissions. To better understand the underlying mechanism of spray interaction with a solid surface, the physics of a single droplet impact on a heated surface was experimentally investigated. The experimental work was conducted at four surface temperatures where a single diesel droplet was injected from a precision syringe pump with a specific droplet diameter and impact velocity. A high-speed camera was used to visualize the droplet impingement process. Images from the selected test condition (We = 52 to 925, Re = 789 to 3330 based on initial droplet impingement parameters) were analyzed to qualify the impinging outcomes and quantify the post-impingement characteristics.
Technical Paper

Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

2019-01-15
2019-01-0067
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber often occurs in compact IC engines. The impingement plays one of the key roles in combustion because it affects the air-fuel mixing process. In this study, the impinged combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of flame-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions. The ambient temperature was varied from 800 K to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from 15% to 21%. Diesel fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiments to explore the impinged combustion process. High-speed images were taken using a high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images.
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