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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1252
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1199
A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis of V2G Impact on Battery Degradation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1699
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE). The battery degradation model is an energy throughput model, which is developed based on the Arrhenius equation and a power law relationship between time and capacity fading.
Technical Paper

Integration of OpenADR with Node-RED for Demand Response Load Control Using Internet of Things Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1702
The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

1984-11-01
841712
The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel X-Tau Parameter Estimation Using Short Time Fourier Transform

2008-04-14
2008-01-1305
This paper presents a Short Time Fourier Transform based algorithm to identify unknown parameters in fuel dynamics system during engine cold start and warm-up. A first order system is used to model the fuel dynamics in a port fuel injection engine. The feed forward transient fuel compensation controller is designed based on the identified model. Experiments are designed and implemented to verify the proposed algorithm. Different experiment settings are compared.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

2008-04-14
2008-01-0764
A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Lithium Ion HEV Battery Aging Using Electrochemical Battery Model under Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1198
This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion cobalt oxide battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging. Standard driving cycle with differing ambient temperatures is tested using developed HEV model.
Technical Paper

Easily Verifiable Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Design with Application to Automotive Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0629
Verification and validation (V&V) are essential stages in the design cycle of industrial controllers to remove the gap between the designed and implemented controller. In this study, a model-based adaptive methodology is proposed to enable easily verifiable controller design based on the formulation of a sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed adaptive SMC improves the controller robustness against major implementation imprecisions including sampling and quantization. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated on the engine cold start emission control problem in a mid-size passenger car. The cold start controller is first designed in a single-input single-output (SISO) structure with three separate sliding surfaces, and then is redesigned based on a multiinput multi-output (MIMO) SMC design technique using nonlinear balanced realization.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0113
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1576
In order to further characterize and optimize the performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems used on heavy-duty diesel engines, an accurately calibrated high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic SCR model and a reduced order estimator for on-board diagnostic (OBD) and control are desirable. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst from a 2010 Cummins ISB engine was experimentally studied in a flow reactor using carefully designed protocols. A 2-site SCR model describing mass transfer and the SCR chemical reaction mechanisms is described in the paper. The model was calibrated to the reactor test data sets collected under temperatures from 200 to 425 °C and SCR space velocities of 60000, 90000, and 120000 hr-1. The model parameters were calibrated using an optimization code to minimize the error between measured and simulated NO, NO₂, N₂O, and NH₃ gas concentration time histories.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
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