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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Noise and Vibration Using Inverse Matrix Techniques

Noise Path Analysis techniques (NPA) have been developed and refined by the automotive industry for structure-borne noise and vibration evaluation of their products. Off-highway vehicles, particularly those with enclosed cabs, are excellent candidates for the application of these techniques. Like automobiles, many off-highway machines are typically driven by a rotating power source, have a well-defined acoustic receiver space, and use some form of isolation between source and receiver sub-systems. These structural characteristics make NPA a useful tool for identifying dominant sources and energy transfer paths. The objectives of this paper are to revisit the fundamental theory of matrix inversion as it applies to NPA techniques, and to address the common setup and measurement issues encountered when acquiring noise path data on off-highway machines. A general overview of the procedures involved in applying NPA to an off-highway machine will be presented.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
Technical Paper

Assessment of CFD Methods for Large Diesel Engines Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

A KIVA-based CFD tool has been utilized to simulate the effect of a Common-Rail injection system applied to a large, uniflow-scavenged, two-stroke diesel engine. In particular, predictions for variations of injection pressure and injection duration have been validated with experimental data. The computational models have been evaluated according to their predictive capabilities of the combustion behavior reflected by the pressure and heat release rate history and the effects on nitric oxide formation and wall temperature trends. In general, the predicted trends are in good agreement with the experimental observations, thus demonstrating the potential of CFD as a design tool for the development of large diesel engines equipped with Common-Rail injection. Existing deficiencies are identified and can be explained in terms of model limitations, specifically with respect to the description of turbulence and combustion chemistry.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Kalman/Vold-Kalman Order Tracking Filters' Formulation and Behavior

The Kalman and Vold-Kalman order tracking filters have been implemented in commercial software since the early 90's. There are several mathematical formulations of filters that have been implemented by different software vendors. However, there have not been any papers that have been published which sufficiently explain the math behind these filters and discuss the actual implementations of the filters in software. In addition, upon generating the equations represented by these filters, solving the equations for datasets in excess of several hundred thousand datapoints is not trivial and has not been discussed in the literature. The papers which have attempted to cover these topics are generally vague and overly mathematically eloquent but not easily understandable by a practicing engineer.
Technical Paper

Implementation of the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as a Real-Time Order Tracking Method

The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform was implemented as a real-time order tracking method using developed software and commercially available hardware. The time variant discrete Fourier transform (TVDFT) with the application of the orthogonality compensation matrix allows multiple tachometers to be tracked with close and/or crossing orders to be separated in real-time. Signal generators were used to create controlled experimental data sets to simulate tachometers and response channels. Computation timing was evaluated for the data collection procedure and each of the data processing steps to determine how each part of the process affects overall performance. Many difficulties are associated with a real-time data collection and analysis tool and it becomes apparent that an understanding of each component in the system is required to determine where time consuming computation is located.
Technical Paper

The Use of Unique Time History Input Excitation in the Dynamic Characterization of Automotive Mounts

The traditional method of dynamic characterization of elastomers used in industry has largely been based on sinusoidal input excitation. Discrete frequency sine wave signals at specified amplitudes are used to excite the elastomer in a step-sine sweep fashion. This paper will examine new methods of characterization using various broadband input excitations. These different inputs include continuous sine sweep (chirp), shaped random, and acquired road profile data. Use of these broadband data types is expected to provide a more accurate representation of conditions seen in the field, while helping to eliminate much of the interpolation that is inherent with the classic discrete step-sine technique. Results of the various input types are compared in this paper with those found using the classic discrete step-sine input.
Technical Paper

Splashing Criterion and Topological Features of a Single Droplet Impinging on the Flat Plate

This paper aims to provide the experimental and numerical investigation of a single fuel droplet impingement on the different wall conditions to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. The experimental work was carried out at the room temperature and pressure except for the variation of the impinged wall temperature. A high-speed camera was employed to capture the silhouette of the droplet impinging on wall process against a collimated light. Water, diesel, n-dodecane, and n-heptane were considered as four different droplets and injected from a precision syringe pump with the volume flow rate of 0.2 mL/min at various impact Weber numbers. The impingement outcomes after droplet impacting on the wall include stick, spread, rebound and splash, which depend on the controlling parameters of Weber number, Reynolds number, liquid and surface properties, etc.
Technical Paper

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.