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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

1998-02-23
981018
Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1046
In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0837
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0113
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicle Sensor Suite Data with Ground Truth Trajectories for Algorithm Development and Evaluation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0042
This paper describes a multi-sensor data set, suitable for testing algorithms to detect and track pedestrians and cyclists, with an autonomous vehicle’s sensor suite. The data set can be used to evaluate the benefit of fused sensing algorithms, and provides ground truth trajectories of pedestrians, cyclists, and other vehicles for objective evaluation of track accuracy. One of the principal bottlenecks for sensing and perception algorithm development is the ability to evaluate tracking algorithms against ground truth data. By ground truth we mean independent knowledge of the position, size, speed, heading, and class of objects of interest in complex operational environments. Our goal was to execute a data collection campaign at an urban test track in which trajectories of moving objects of interest are measured with auxiliary instrumentation, in conjunction with several autonomous vehicles (AV) with a full sensor suite of radar, lidar, and cameras.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

2007-05-15
2007-01-2231
This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.
Technical Paper

Refining Vibration Quality - A Study Characterizing Vehicle/Operator Interface Vibration on Snowmobiles and ATVs

2007-05-15
2007-01-2389
Sensory jury testing was utilized to characterize vibration levels perceived by the operator, with respect to levels measured using instrumentation, in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of vibration at the operator interfaces. Details of the jury testing and jury data processing method are highlighted as well as the refinement of vibration characterization for a specific application. The vibration at user interface locations of both snowmobiles and ATVs was measured along with subjective feedback from a panel of jurists. Statistical analysis was performed on the jury data to provide both a qualitative and quantitative number to represent the opinion of the jury. Correlations were developed between the measured levels of vibration and the opinions of the jury. Finally, a set of correlation functions suitable for design predictions was developed.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Acoustic Encapsulation to Reduce Diesel Engine Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2375
This paper describes a study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an acoustic encapsulation to reduce airborne noise from a commercial diesel engine. First, the various sources of noise from the engine were identified using Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH). Detailed NAH measurements were conducted on the four sides of the engine in an engine test cell. The main sources of noise from the engine were ranked and identified within the frequency ranges of interest. Experimental modal analysis was conducted on the oil pan and front cover plate of the engine to reveal correlations of structural vibration results with the data from the NAH. The second phase of the study involved the design and fabrication of the acoustical encapsulation (noise covers) for the engine in a test cell to satisfy the requirements of space, cost and performance constraints. The acoustical materials for the enclosure were selected to meet the frequency and temperature ranges of interest.
Technical Paper

Complementary Intersection Method (CIM) for System Reliability Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0558
Researchers desire to evaluate system reliability uniquely and efficiently. Despite its strong technical demand, little progress has been made on system reliability analysis in the last two decades. Up to now, bound methods for system reliability prediction have been dominant. For system reliability bounds, the second order bound method gives fairly accurate prediction for system reliability assuming that the probabilities of second-order joint events are accurately obtained. Two primary challenges in system reliability analysis are evaluation of the probabilities of second-order joint events and no unique system reliability for design optimization. Firstly, the greatest technical demand is found in an accurate and efficient method to numerically evaluate the probability of a second-order joint event.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0799
This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Signature Analysis and Operating Deflection Shapes to Identify Interior Noise Sources in an Excavator

2007-05-15
2007-01-2427
The objective of this study was to identify and gain an understanding of the origins of noise in a commercial excavator cab. This paper presents the results of two different tests that were used to characterize the vibration and acoustic characteristics of the excavator cab. The first test was done in an effort to characterize the vibration properties of the cab panels and their associated contribution to the noise level inside the cab. The second set, of tests, was designed to address the contribution of the external airborne noise produced by the engine and hydraulic pump to the overall interior noise. This paper describes the test procedures used to obtain the data for the signature analysis, operational deflection shapes (ODS), and sound diagnosis analysis. It also contains a discussion of the analysis results and an inside look into the possible contributors of key frequencies to the interior noise in the excavator cab.
Journal Article

Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

2017-06-05
2017-01-1816
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Reduced-order Powertrain Model of a Multi-mode Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1210
This paper presents the development of a reduced-order powertrain model for energy and SOC estimation of a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with velocity and elevation inputs. Such a model is intended to overcome the computational inefficiencies of higher fidelity powertrain and vehicle models in short and long horizon optimization efforts such as Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (Eco AND), Eco Routing, and PHEV mode blending. The reduced-order powertrain model enables Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to utilize the onboard sensor and connected data to quickly react and plan their maneuvers to highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources. Although overall estimation accuracy is less than neural network and high-fidelity models, emphasis on runtime minimization with reasonable estimation accuracy enables energy optimization of CAV without a need for computationally expensive server-based models.
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