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Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0925
Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1785
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Carbureted SI Engine Air Flow Measurements

2016-04-05
2016-01-1082
Measurement of internal combustion engine air flow is challenging due to the required modification of the intake system and subsequent change in the air flow pattern. In this paper, various surge tank volumes were investigated to improve the accuracy of measuring air flow rate into a 674-cm3, four-stroke, liquid-cooled, internal combustion engine. According to the experimental results, when the venturi meter is used to measure the intake air flow rate, an air surge tank is required to be installed downstream of the venturi to smoothen the air flow. Moreover, test results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit could have a negative effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling AFR is difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine changed with increasing tank volume, the air-fuel ratio was leaner for smaller tank volumes.
Technical Paper

Directional Emissions Predictions of NOx and Soot of a Diesel ICE via Numerical Simulation

2015-09-29
2015-01-2880
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables prediction of premature failures and study of new promising concepts. In industry, numerical simulation has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests prior to spending resources on alternatives with lower likelihood of success. The internal combustion Diesel engine plays an important role in Brazil, since they are used extensively in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability. In this case, the most critical pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) or soot. The reduction of their levels without affecting the engine performance is not a simple task. This paper presents a methodology for guiding the combustion analysis by the prediction of NOx emissions and soot using numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Development of a Reduced Chemical Mechanism for Combustion of Gasoline-Biofuels

2017-09-04
2017-24-0039
Bio-derived fuels are drawing more and more attention in the internal combustion engine (ICE) research field in recent years. Those interests in use of renewable biofuels in ICE applications derive from energy security issues and, more importantly, from environment pollutant emissions concerns. High fidelity numerical study of engine combustion requires advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to be coupled with detailed chemical kinetic models. This task becomes extremely challenging if real fuels are taken into account, as they include a mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons, which prohibitively increases computational cost. Therefore, along with employing surrogate fuel models, reduction of detailed kinetic models for multidimensional engine applications is preferred. In the present work, a reduced mechanism was developed for primary reference fuel (PRF) using the directed relation graph (DRG) approach. The mechanism was generated from an existing detailed mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Analysis of the Flow Around a Blunt-Base Vehicle

2005-11-01
2005-01-3626
This paper describes the results of experiments that were performed using a Ground Research Vehicle (GRV) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, CA and a comparison with computational results. The GRV is a modified 1984 General Motors (GMC) van and measures 40 feet long and 9 feet high, with a base area of 83 by 83, and it weighs 10260 lbs and holds a crew of up to three. Air data is measured from a nose-boom, 2 global positioning (GPS) units, and an absolute Honeywell Pressure Transducer with 4 Electronic Signal Processor (ESP) scanners and 64 surface pressure ports. This allows for detailed measurements of the surface pressure profiles around the vehicle. The total vehicle drag is estimated from coast-down tests, while the pressure component of the drag force may be calculated by integrating the pressure profiles on the front and base of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

Vibrational and Sound Radiation Properties of a Double Layered Diesel Engine Gear Cover

1999-05-17
1999-01-1773
The introduction of a thin fluid layer between two layers of sheet metal offers a highly effective and economical alternative to the use of constrained viscoelastic damping layers in sheet metal structures. A diesel engine gear cover, which is constructed of two sheet metal sections spot welded together, takes advantage of fluid layer damping to produce superior vibration and sound radiation performance. In this paper, the bending of a double layered plate coupled through a thin fluid layer is modeled using a traveling wave approach which results in a impedance function that can be used to assess the vibration and sound radiation performance of practical double layered plate structures. Guided by this model, the influence of fluid layer thickness and inside-to-outside sheet thickness is studied.
Technical Paper

Assessment of CFD Methods for Large Diesel Engines Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0948
A KIVA-based CFD tool has been utilized to simulate the effect of a Common-Rail injection system applied to a large, uniflow-scavenged, two-stroke diesel engine. In particular, predictions for variations of injection pressure and injection duration have been validated with experimental data. The computational models have been evaluated according to their predictive capabilities of the combustion behavior reflected by the pressure and heat release rate history and the effects on nitric oxide formation and wall temperature trends. In general, the predicted trends are in good agreement with the experimental observations, thus demonstrating the potential of CFD as a design tool for the development of large diesel engines equipped with Common-Rail injection. Existing deficiencies are identified and can be explained in terms of model limitations, specifically with respect to the description of turbulence and combustion chemistry.
Technical Paper

Gradient-Based Optimization of a Multi-Orifice Asynchronous Injection System in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Cost Function

2006-04-03
2006-01-1551
A gradient-based optimization tool has been developed and, in conjunction with a CFD code, utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. The approach taken uses a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line search is performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for a non-road version of the Sulzer S20 DI diesel engine which, for these simulations, is equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous injection system. This system permits an independent timing of the fuel pulses, and each orifice has its own diameter and injection direction.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

2008-04-14
2008-01-0357
Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Signature Analysis and Operating Deflection Shapes to Identify Interior Noise Sources in an Excavator

2007-05-15
2007-01-2427
The objective of this study was to identify and gain an understanding of the origins of noise in a commercial excavator cab. This paper presents the results of two different tests that were used to characterize the vibration and acoustic characteristics of the excavator cab. The first test was done in an effort to characterize the vibration properties of the cab panels and their associated contribution to the noise level inside the cab. The second set, of tests, was designed to address the contribution of the external airborne noise produced by the engine and hydraulic pump to the overall interior noise. This paper describes the test procedures used to obtain the data for the signature analysis, operational deflection shapes (ODS), and sound diagnosis analysis. It also contains a discussion of the analysis results and an inside look into the possible contributors of key frequencies to the interior noise in the excavator cab.
Technical Paper

Momentum Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

2004-03-08
2004-01-0535
The discrete droplet model is widely used to describe two-phase flows such as high-velocity dense sprays. The interaction between the liquid and the gas phase is modeled via appropriate source terms in the gas phase equations. This approach can lead to a strong dependence of the liquid-gas coupling on the spatial resolution of the gas phase. The liquid-gas coupling requires the computation of source terms using the gas phase properties, and, subsequently, these sources are then distributed onto the gas phase mesh. In this study, a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method has been developed to evaluate the source terms and also to distribute these source terms onto the gas mesh. The focus of this investigation has been on the momentum exchange between the two phases. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are evaluated for non-evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform.
Technical Paper

Mass Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

2005-04-11
2005-01-1241
This investigation is a continuation of a previous study by these authors in which a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method was developed to evaluate spray source terms and also to distribute the source terms onto the gas mesh; the method was applied to the liquid-gas momentum exchange. For this investigation, the method has been extended to the mass exchange between the liquid and gas phases due to evaporation. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are applied to the liquid-gas mass and momentum exchange and are evaluated for evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform. These methods are compared with the standard “nearest neighbor” method of KIVA3, and experimental data are used to establish their validity. The evaluation criteria used include the liquid and vapor spray penetration, gas velocities and the computational stability.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Fuel Injection Configurations for the Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption in a Diesel Engine Using a Conjugate Gradient Method

2005-04-11
2005-01-1244
The objective of this study is the development of a computationally efficient CFD-based tool with the capability of finding optimal engine operating conditions with respect to emissions and fuel consumption. The approach taken uses a conjugate gradient method, where the line search is performed with a backtracking algorithm. The initial backtracking step employs an adaptive step size mechanism which depends on the steepness of the search direction. The engine simulations are performed with a KIVA-3-based code which is equipped with well-established spray, combustion and emission models. The cost function is based on the idea of the penalty method and is minimized over the unit cube in n-dimensional space, which represents the set of normalized injection parameters under investigation. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine.
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