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Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Impact of EGR on Combustion Processes in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1039
With concerns continuing to grow with respect to global warming from greenhouse gases, further regulations are being examined, developed and are expected for the emission of CO2 as an automobile exhaust. Renewable alternate fuels offer the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 impact of transportation. Hydrogen as a spark - ignition (SI) engine fuel provides this potential for significant CO2 reduction when generated from renewable resources. In addition, hydrogen has advantageous combustion properties including a wide flammable mixture range which facilitates lean burning and high dilution, fast combustion energy release and zero CO2 emissions. However, the high burning rates and fast energy release can lead to excessive in-cylinder pressures and temperatures resulting in combustion knock and high NOx emissions at stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects

2015-09-29
2015-01-2808
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions while maintaining durability. Transforming part of the vehicle fleet to NG is a path to reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit

2013-04-08
2013-01-1630
For spark-ignition gasoline engines operating under the wide speed and load conditions required for light duty vehicles, ignition quality limits the ability to minimize fuel consumption and NOx emissions via dilution under light and part load conditions. In addition, during transients including tip-outs, high levels of dilution can occur for multiple combustion events before either the external exhaust gas can be adjusted and cleared from the intake or cam phasing can be adjusted for correct internal dilution. Further improvement and a thorough understanding of the impact of the ignition system on combustion near the dilution limit will enable reduced fuel consumption and robust transient operation. To determine and isolate the effects of multiple parameters, a variable output ignition system (VOIS) was developed and tested on a 3.5L turbocharged V6 homogeneous charge direct-injection gasoline engine with two spark plug gaps and three ignition settings.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of Split Injections and EGR in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Gradient-Based Algorithm

2006-04-03
2006-01-0059
The objective of this study is the development of a computationally efficient CFD-based tool for finding optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses, the duration of each pulse, the duration of the dwell, the exhaust gas recirculation rate and the boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Target Based Rapid Prototyping Control System for Engine Research

2006-04-03
2006-01-0860
Today's advanced technology engines have a high content of electronic actuation requiring sophisticated real-time embedded software sensing and control. To enable research on such engines, a system with a flexible engine control unit (ECU) that can be rapidly configured and programmed is desired. Such a system is being used in the Advanced Internal Combustion Engine (AICE) Laboratories at Michigan Tech University (MTU) for research on a multi-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline, a high pressure common rail diesel and a single cylinder alternative fuels research engine. The system combines a production ECU with a software development system utilizing Mathworks Simulink/Stateflow © modeling tools. The interface in the Simulink modeling environment includes a library of modeling and interface blocks to the production Operating System (OS), Low Level Drivers (LLD) and CAN-based calibration tool.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Split Injection System with EGR and Boost Pressure/Compression Ratio Variations in a Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0168
A previously developed CFD-based optimization tool is utilized to find optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses of a split injection system, the duration of each pulse, the exhaust gas recirculation rate, the boost pressure and the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Filtration and Oxidation Characteristics of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1123
An experimental and modeling study was conducted to study the passive regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) by the oxidation of particulate matter (PM) via thermal and Nitrogen dioxide/temperature-assisted means. Emissions data in the exhaust of a John Deere 6.8 liter, turbocharged and after-cooled engine with a low-pressure loop EGR and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in the exhaust system was measured and used for this study. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the DOC, CPF and DOC+CPF configurations at various engine speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter and Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0473
The objective of this research was to study the effect of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) with a high loading of catalyst (50 gms/ft3) and ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSF -0.57 ppm of sulfur) on the emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine. The particulate emissions were measured using two different analytical methods, i.e., the gravimetric method and the thermal optical method (TOM). The results from the two different methods of analyses were compared. The experiments were performed at four different operating conditions chosen from the old Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 13-mode test cycle. A 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty engine with manually controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was used to perform the emission characterization experiments. The emission characterization included total particulate matter (TPM), which is composed of the solids (SOL), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulfates (SO4) analyzed using the gravimetric method.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Two Catalyzed Particulate Filters on Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine: Filtration and Particulate Matter Oxidation Characteristics Studied Experimentally and Using a 1- D 2- Layer Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0950
A 1-D 2-layer model developed previously at MTU was used in this research to predict the pressure drop, filtration characteristics and various properties of the particulate filter and the particulate deposit layer. The model was used along with dilute emission data to characterize two catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs) having different catalyst loading and catalyst application processes. The model was calibrated and validated with data obtained from steady state experiments conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine with manual EGR with different fuels for the two different CPFs. The two different catalyzed particulate filters were CPF III (5 gms/ft3 Pt) and CPF V (50 gms/ft3 Pt). Both the CPFs had cordierite substrates with CPF III and CPF V had MEX and NEX catalyst type formulation respectively. The CPF III filter was catalyzed using a solution-impregnated process while the CPF V filter was catalyzed using a wash coat process.
Technical Paper

A Controlled EGR Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0076
In order to comply with 2002 EPA emissions regulations, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be used by heavy duty (HD) diesel engine manufacturers as the primary means to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A feedforward controlled EGR cooling system with a secondary electric water pump and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback has been designed to cool the recirculated exhaust gas in order to better realize the benefits of EGR without overcooling the exhaust gas since overcooling leads to the fouling of the EGR cooler with acidic residues. A system without a variable controlled coolant flow rate is not able to achieve these goals because the exhaust temperature and the EGR schedule vary significantly, especially under transient and warm-up operating conditions. Simulation results presented in this paper have been determined using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) software, which has been developed and validated using actual engine data.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0208
Tumble motion plays a significant role in modern spark-ignition engines in that it promotes mixing of air/fuel for homogeneous combustion and increases the flame propagation speed for higher thermal efficiency and lower combustion variability. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the flow near the spark plug introduce variability to the initial flame kernel development, stretching, and convection, and this variability is carried over to the entire combustion process. The design of current direct-injection spark-ignition engines aims to have a tumble flow in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition. This work investigates how the flow condition changes in the vicinity of the spark plug throughout the late compression stroke via high-speed imaging of a long ignition discharge arc channel and its stretching, and via flow field measurement by particle imaging velocimetry.
Journal Article

Investigation of Impacts of Spark Plug Orientation on Early Flame Development and Combustion in a DI Optical Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0680
The influence of spark plug orientation on early flame kernel development is investigated in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection homogeneous charged spark ignition engine. This investigation provides visual understanding and statistical characterization of how spark plug orientation impacts the early flame kernel and thus combustion phasing and engine performance. The projected images of flame kernel were captured through natural flame chemiluminescence with a high-speed camera at 10,000 frames per second, and the ignition secondary discharge voltage and current were measured with a 10 MHz DAQ system. The combustion metrics were determined using measurement from a piezo-electric in-cylinder pressure transducer and real-time engine combustion analyzer. Three spark plug orientations with two different electrode designs were studied. The captured images of the flame were processed to yield 2D and 1D probability distributions.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion on Diesel Spray Penetrations in Relation to Vaporizing, Non-Reacting Sprays

2016-10-17
2016-01-2201
Extensive studies have addressed diesel sprays under non-vaporizing, vaporizing and combusting conditions respectively, but further insights into the mechanism by which combustion alters the macroscopic characteristics including the spray penetration and the shape of the spray under diesel engine conditions are needed. Contradictory observations are reported in the literature regarding the combusting diesel spray penetration compared to the inert conditions, and it is an objective of this study to provide further insights and analyses on the combusting spray characteristics by expanding the range of operating parameters. Parameters varied in the studies are charge gas conditions including oxygen levels of 0 %, 15%, 19%, charge densities of 22.8 & 34.8 kg/m3, and charge temperatures of 800, 900 & 1050 K for injection pressures of 1200, 1500, and 1800 bar with a single-hole injector with a nozzle diameter of 100 μm.
Technical Paper

A Variable Displacement Engine with Independently Controllable Stroke Length and Compression Ratio

2006-04-03
2006-01-0741
A variable displacement engine with the capability to vary stroke length and compression ratio independent of one another has been designed, prototyped, and successfully operated. Reasons for investigation of such an engine are the potential for improvement in fuel economy and/or performance. Literature has shown that engines with variable compression ratio can significantly decrease specific fuel consumption. Engines with variability in stroke length can maintain peak efficiency running conditions by adjusting power output through displacement change verses through the efficiency detriment of throttling. The project began with the synthesis of a planar 2-dimensional rigid body mechanism. Various synthesis techniques were employed and design took place with a collection of computer software. MATLAB code performed much of the synthesis, kinematic, and dynamic analysis.
Technical Paper

Spark Mechanism in High Speed Flow

2019-04-02
2019-01-0729
An experimental study was performed to investigate spark ignition and subsequent spark stretch evolution in an inert environment at high- flow velocities up to 32 m/s across the spark plug gap in a constant-volume optical combustion-vessel at pressures representative of those in an engine. The vessel is capable of generating various in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions representative of light-duty spark ignition engines. The characteristic behavior of the spark was investigated using both a high-speed optical diagnostics and electrical measurement. Charge gas pressures were varied from 15 to 45 bar. Results show that the spark, flowing downstream the spark plug, is subject to short circuits of the spark channel and/or restrikes. The frequency of the restrike increased with increased flow velocity and charge gas pressure and decreased discharge current level.
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