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Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

The Volume Acoustic Modes of Spark-Ignited Internal Combustion Chambers

Acoustic standing waves are excited in internal combustion chambers by both normal combustion and autoignition. The energy in these acoustic modes can be transmitted through the engine block and radiated as high-frequency engine noise. Using finite-element models of two different (four-valve and two-valve) production engine combustion chambers, the mode shapes and relative frequencies of the in-cylinder volume acoustic modes are calculated as a function of crank angle. The model is validated by comparison to spectrograms of experimental time-sampled waveforms (from flush-mounted cylinder pressure sensors and accelerometers) from these two typical production spark-ignited engines.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Spark-Ignited Engine

One important design goal for spark-ignited engines is to minimize cyclic variability. A small amount of cyclic variability (slow burns) can produce undesirable engine vibrations. A larger amount of cyclic variability (incomplete burns) leads to increased hydrocarbon consumption/emissions. Recent studies have reported deterministic patterns in cyclic variability under extremely lean (misfiring) operating conditions. The present work is directed toward more realistic non-misfiring conditions. Production engine test results suggest that deterministic patterns in cyclic variability are the consequence of incomplete combustion, hence control algorithms based on the occurrence of these patterns are not expected to be of significant practical value.
Technical Paper

A New Wavelet Technique for Transient Sound Visualization and Application to Automotive Door Closing Events

Transient automotive sounds often possess a complex internal structure resulting from one or more impacts combined with mechanical and acoustic cavity resonances. This structure can be revealed by a new technique for obtaining translation-invariant scalograms from orthogonal discrete wavelet transforms. These scalograms are particularly well suited to the visualization of complex sound transients which span a wide dynamic range in time (ms to s) and frequency (∼100Hz to ∼10kHz). As examples, scalograms and spectrograms of door latch closing events from a variety of automotive platforms are discussed and compared in light of the subjective rankings of the sounds.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization, Separation, and Synthesis Tools for Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises

Recent applied mathematics research on the properties of the invertible shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform has produced new ways to visualize, separate, and synthesize impulsive sounds, such as thuds, slaps, taps, knocks, and rattles. These new methods can be used to examine the joint time-frequency characteristics of a sound, to select individual components based on their time-frequency localization, to quantify the components, and to synthesize new sounds from the selected components. The new tools will be presented in a non-mathematical way illustrated by two real-life sound quality problems, extracting the impulsive components of a windshield wiper sound, and analyzing a door closing-induced rattle.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-based Modification of Impulsive Sound Character and Application to Diesel Sound Quality

A wavelet-based technique for reducing the impulsive character of sound recordings is presented. The amount of impulsive content removed may be adjusted by varying a statistical threshold. The technique is validated for a diesel idle sound-quality application. The wavelet-based modification produces a substantial decrease in impulsive character as verified by an objective sound-quality metric for engine “ticking”. Informal subjective assessment of the modified results found them to be realistic and free from artifacts. The procedure is expected to be useful for sound-quality simulation and target-setting for diesel powertrain noise and other automotive sounds containing both impulsive and non-impulsive content.
Journal Article

Characterization of Powertrain Technology Benefits Using Normalized Engine and Vehicle Fuel Consumption Data

Vehicle certification data are used to study the effectiveness of the major powertrain technologies used by car manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption. Methods for differentiating vehicles effectively were developed by leveraging theoretical models of engine and vehicle fuel consumption. One approach normalizes by displacement per unit distance, which puts both fuel used and vehicle work in mean effective pressure units, and is useful when comparing engine technologies. The other normalizes by engine rated power, a customer-relevant output metric. The normalized work/power is proportional to weight/power, the most fundamental performance metric. Certification data for 2016 and 2017 U.S. vehicles with different powertrain technologies are compared to baseline vehicles with port fuel injection (PFI) naturally aspirated engines and six-speed automatic transmissions.