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Technical Paper

Limitations of Real-Time Engine-Out NOx Estimation in Diesel Engines

Many excellent papers have been written about the subject of estimating engine-out NOx on diesel engines based on real-time available data. The claimed accuracy of these models is typically around 6-10% on validation data sets with known inputs. This reported accuracy typically ignores input uncertainties, thus arriving at an optimistic estimate of the model accuracy in a real-time application. In our paper we analyze the effect of input uncertainty on the accuracy of engine-out NOx estimates via a numerical Monte Carlo simulation and show that this effect can be significant. Even though our model is based on an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this sensor is limited in its capability to reduce the effect of other measured inputs on the model.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction Control with Multiple Injectors

Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction, control of NH3 slip or reduced reductant consumption, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics for Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Regulatory authorities are actively revising and updating the rules for on board diagnostics of diesel powertrains. Diesel oxidation catalysts are among the parts that will have to be monitored. This paper discusses some of the issues related to the feasibility of monitoring these catalysts. We concentrate on the effect of real world noise factors on the ability to distinguish marginal from threshold catalysts and demonstrate that with current sensor and catalyst technology the separation between the two is poor.
Technical Paper

Experiments in Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are a technology likely to be deployed to meet future stringent emission levels for heavy and light duty diesel powertrains in North America and Europe. This paper discusses experimental results in the active regeneration of DPFs. Attention is given to the system components, the information based on which regeneration is triggered, and the means to achieve a regeneration. The paper will report on successful regenerations under several extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Smart DPF regenerations – A case study of Connected Powertrain functions

The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources to the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies (DAT) and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is clear, however, that the additional information available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Additionally, critical subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. In this paper we discuss one such system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Standard DPF regenerations are scheduled on some soot load inference based on indirect indicators of system state, such as exhaust gas flow rate and pressure drop across the DPF. Approaches such as this are necessary since a reliable method of a direct soot load measurement in the DPF is currently not available.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.