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Technical Paper

A Multi-Objective Optimization and Robustness Assessment Framework for Passenger Airbag Shape Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1505
A passenger airbag is an important part of a vehicle restraint system which provides supplemental protection to an occupant in a crash event. New Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 208 requires considering multiple crash scenarios at different speeds with various sizes of occupants both belted and unbelted. The increased complexity of the new requirements makes the selection of an optimal airbag shape a new challenge. The aim of this research is to present an automated optimization framework to facilitate the airbag shape design process by integrating advanced tools and technologies, including system integration, numerical optimization, robust assessment, and occupant simulation. A real-world frontal impact application is used to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Application of Tailor Rolled Blank in Vehicle Front End for Frontal Impact

2007-04-16
2007-01-0675
Lighter weight and lower cost have been pursued in automotive industry. Traditionally, metal sheets of uniform thickness are used for stamping or forming vehicle structural parts. For a desired structure, a metal sheet with varying thickness is desirable. It not only saves material but also increases design flexibility. For example, some areas of a cross member require thicker thicknesses to support localized, larger loading, while for other areas, where there is no localized loading, thinner thicknesses can be used to save material. Tailor Rolled Blank (TRB) is an emerging manufacturing technology which allows engineers to change blank thickness continuously within a sheet metal, virtually eliminating the need for welding local reinforcements in the part. TRB also provides simpler structural design due to smooth, rolled transitions, which prevent stress concentrations in the finished part.
Technical Paper

An Excel Based Robust Design Tool for Vehicle Structural Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-1124
To reduce the cost of prototype and physical test, CAE analysis has been widely used to evaluate the vehicle performance during product development process. Combining CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle design process can be implemented more efficiently with affordable cost. Reliability based design optimization (RBDO) formulation considers variations of input variables, such as component gauges and material properties. As a result, the design obtained by using RBDO is more reliable and robust compared to those by deterministic optimization. The RBDO process starts from running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface) and performing robust and reliability based design optimization on the surrogate models by using Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a RBDO framework in Excel enviroment.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1128
This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Estimate of Vehicle Safety Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0822
This paper describes the development of a Bayesian estimate of vehicle safety performance. The vehicle crash testing is conducted often using a very small sample size. With these limited tests, one often has to face the following question, “what is the confidence to meet the design target or government compliance in a subsequent test?” The prediction methods will be discussed to determine the confidence in meeting overall the design requirements based on successful test results with multiple responses and design targets.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Crash Pulse

2005-04-11
2005-01-0748
In vehicle safety engineering, it is important to determine the severity of occupant injury during a crash. Computer simulations are widely used to study how occupants move in a crash, what they collide during the crash and thus how they are injured. The vehicle motion is typically defined for the occupant simulation by specifying a crash pulse. Many computer models used to analyze occupant kinematics do not calculate both vehicle motion and occupant motion at the same time. This paper presents a framework of response surface methodology for the crash pulse prediction and vehicle structure design optimization. The process is composed of running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface models), performing sensitivity analysis and structure design optimization for time history data (e.g., crash pulse).
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Vehicle Pitch and Drop

2006-04-03
2006-01-0316
The optimization method and CAE analysis have been widely used in structure design for crash safety. Combining the CAE analysis and optimization approach, vehicle structure design for crash can be implemented more efficiently. One of the recent safety desirables in structure design is to reduce vehicle pitch and drop. At frontal impact tests with unbelted occupants, the interaction between occupant's head and interior header/sun visor, which is caused by excessive vehicle pitch and drop, is not desired in vehicle crash development. In order to comply with the federal frontal crash requirements for unbelted occupant, it is necessary to manage the vehicle pitch and drop by improving structure design. In this paper, a systematic process of CAE analysis with optimization approach is applied for discovering the major structural components affecting vehicle pitch and drop.
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