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Technical Paper

Practical Application of DFSS on the Development of Electrical and Electro-Hydraulic Controlled Torque Transfer Clutch

The design discipline of Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) has been applied to many areas of product development and manufacturing. As DFSS application has recently been extended to upfront automotive engineering areas such as research and advanced development, more robust and optimized technologies can be achieved in the pre-production stage, reducing cost, exhibiting superior quality and performance, and shortened development cycle. This paper describes the application of the DFSS process, Define, Characterize, Optimize, and Verify (DCOV) to develop an automotive technology that begins from the conceptual phase and continues up through the implementation phase. The role of DFSS in the automotive industry is to provide a framework for more rigorous upfront engineering. It provides guidelines to a more effective and efficient development of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Review of Wet Friction Component Models for Automatic Transmission Shift Analysis

In a step-ratio automatic transmission system, wet friction components are widely utilized to alter planetary gear configurations for automatic shifting. Thus, their engagement characteristics have a direct impact on shift quality or drivetrain NVH. A vehicle design process can benefit from predictive friction component models that allow analytical shift quality evaluation, leading to reduced development time. However, their practical application to shift analysis is seldom discussed in the literature although there are many references available for friction component modeling itself. A successful shift analysis requires a balance of model complexity, predictability and computational efficiency for a given objective. This paper reviews three types of friction component models found in today's open literature, namely, first principle based, algebraic, and empirical models. Model structure, assumptions, computational efficiency, and utilities are discussed.
Journal Article

Accuracy and Robustness of Parallel Vehicle Mass and Road Grade Estimation

A variety of vehicle controls, from active safety systems to power management algorithms, can greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust real-time estimates of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation scheme and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration as measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiation of the undriven wheel speeds. Mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
Journal Article

In-Vehicle Characterization of Wet Clutch Engagement Behaviors in Automatic Transmission Systems

A new generation of a planetary-gear-based automatic transmission system is designed with an increasing number of ratio steps. It requires synchronous operation of one or more wet clutches, to achieve a complex shift event. A missed synchronization results in drive torque disturbance which may be perceived by vehicle occupants as an undesirable shift shock. Accurate knowledge of clutch behaviors in an actual vehicle environment is indispensable for achieving precise clutch controls and reducing shift calibration effort. Wet clutches are routinely evaluated on an industry-standard SAE#2 tester during the clutch design process. While it is a valuable tool for screening relative frictional behaviors, clutch engagement data from a SAE#2 tester do not correlate well with vehicle shift behaviors due to the limited reproducibility of realistic slip, actuator force profiles, and lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Empirical Asperity Contact Model for Wet Friction Material

A wet clutch couples or decouples gear elements to alter torque paths in an automatic transmission system. During the gear shifting event, the clutch torque is directly transmitted to the output shaft. Hence, clutch torque heavily influences the dynamics of the transmission. In order to evaluate the behavior of the transmission early and efficiently, the development process increasingly relies on high-fidelity transmission system simulations with added complexity. However, a wet clutch continues to be modeled using Coulomb’s friction in a typical shift simulation. Its linear framework does not physically represent non-linear hydrodynamic effects due to the presence of oil layer during clutch engagement. To make up the lack of physics, Coulomb’s clutch model often requires extensive tuning to match actual shift behaviors.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Initialization Errors for Enabling Accurate Online Drivetrain Simulations

Simulations conducted on-board in a vehicle control module can offer valuable information to control strategies. Continued improvements to on-board computing hardware make online simulations of complex dynamic systems such as drivetrains within reach. This capability enables predictions of the system response to various control actions and disturbances. Implementation of online simulations requires model initialization that is consistent with the physical drivetrain state. However, sensor signals and estimated variables are susceptible to errors, compromising the accuracy of the initialization and any future state predictions as the simulation proceeds through the numerical integration process. This paper describes a drivetrain modeling and analysis method that accounts for initialization errors, thereby enabling accurate simulations of system behaviors.