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Technical Paper

Laboratory Study to Determine Impact of Na and K Exposure on the Durability of DOC and SCR Catalyst Formulations

2009-11-02
2009-01-2823
A laboratory flow reactor study was utilized to determine the durability impact of alkali metal (Na and K) exposure on three Pt/Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), two vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and two Cu/zeolite-based SCR catalysts. All catalyst samples were contaminated by direct deposition of Na or K by an incipient wetness technique. The activity impact on the contaminated DOCs was accomplished by evaluating for changes in CO and HC light-off. The activity impact on the contaminated SCR catalysts was accomplished by evaluating for changes in the Standard SCR Reaction, the Fast SCR Reaction, the Ammonia Oxidation Reaction, and the Ammonia Storage Capacity. Contamination levels of 3.0 wt% Na was found to have a higher negative impact on Pt-based and zeolite containing DOCs for T-50 CO and HC light-off.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-1282
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1278
The effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC), an emulsified fuel, and their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations compared to those obtained when using a basefuel were studied. Particle size and particulate emission measurements were conducted at three operating conditions; idle (850 rpm, 35 Nm), Mode 11 (1900 rpm, 277 Nm) and Mode 9 (1900 rpm, 831 Nm) of the EPA 13 mode cycle. The individual effects of the emulsified fuel and the OCC as well as their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations were studied at two different particle size ranges; the nuclei (less than or equal to 50 nm) and accumulation (greater than 50 nm) modes. An OCC loaded with 10 g/ft3 platinum metal (OCC1) and a 20% emulsified fuel were used for this study and a notable influence on the particle size with respect to number and volume distributions was observed.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1277
A study was conducted to assess the effects of a water-diesel fuel emulsion with and without an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on steady-state heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Two OCCs with different metal loading levels were used in this study. A 1988 Cummins L10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine was operated at the rated speed of 1900 rpm and at 75% and 25% load conditions (EPA modes 9 and 11 respectively) of the 13 mode steady-state test as well as at idle. Raw exhaust emissions' measurements included total hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide (NO). Diluted exhaust measurements included total particulate matter (TPM) and its primary constituents, the soluble organic (SOF), sulfate (SO42-) and the carbonaceous solids (SOL) fractions. Vapor phase organic compounds (XOC) were also analyzed. The SOF and XOC samples were analyzed for selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Computational Model for Studying the Filtration and Regeneration Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter

2003-03-03
2003-01-0841
A one-dimensional, two layer computational model was developed to predict the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow diesel particulate filter (CPF). The model included the mechanisms of particle deposition inside the CPF porous wall and on the CPF wall surface, the exhaust flow field and temperature field inside the CPF, as well as the particulate catalytic oxidation mechanisms accounting for the catalyst-assisted particulate oxidation by the catalytic coating in addition to the conventional particulate thermal oxidation. The paper also develops the methodology for calibrating and validating the model with experimental data. Steady state loading experiments were performed to calibrate and validate the model.
Journal Article

Enhanced Durability of a Cu/Zeolite Based SCR Catalyst

2008-04-14
2008-01-1025
Passenger and light duty diesel vehicles will require up to 90% NOx conversion over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) to meet future Tier 2 Bin 5 standards. This accomplishment is especially challenging for low exhaust temperature applications that mostly operate in the 200 - 350°C temperature regime. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts formulated with Cu/zeolites have shown the potential to deliver this level of performance fresh, but their performance can easily deteriorate over time as a result of high temperature thermal deactivation. These high temperature SCR deactivation modes are unavoidable due to the requirements necessary to actively regenerate diesel particulate filters and purge SCRs from sulfur and hydrocarbon contamination. Careful vehicle temperature control of these events is necessary to prevent unintentional thermal damage but not always possible. As a result, there is a need to develop thermally robust SCR catalysts.
Journal Article

Impact and Prevention of Ultra-Low Contamination of Platinum Group Metals on SCR Catalysts Due to DOC Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0627
Diesel aftertreatment systems configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of an urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst run the risk of precious metal contamination. During active diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration events, the DOC bed temperature can reach up to 850°C. Under these conditions, precious metal (especially Pt) can be volatized and then deposited on a downstream SCR catalyst. In this paper, the impact of ultra-low contamination of platinum group metals (PGM) on the SCR catalyst was studied. A method based on precious metal volatilization of a Pt-rich DOC at 850°C and under lean gas conditions was employed to contaminate downstream FeSCR and CuSCR formulations. The contamination resulted in poor NOx conversion (via NOx remake) and excessive N2O formation. The precious metal volatilization method was employed to screen various Pt/Pd based DOCs to avoid contamination of the downstream FeSCR.
Journal Article

Laboratory Study of Soot, Propylene, and Diesel Fuel Impact on Zeolite-Based SCR Filter Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0903
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been designed to reduce NOx with the assistance of an ammonia-based reductant. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have been designed to trap and eventually oxidize particulate matter (PM). Combining the SCR function within the wall of a high porosity particulate filter substrate has the potential to reduce the overall complexity of the aftertreatment system while maintaining the required NOx and PM performance. The concept, termed Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter (SCRF) was studied using a synthetic gas bench to determine the NOx conversion robustness from soot, coke, and hydrocarbon deposition. Soot deposition, coke derived from propylene exposure, and coke derived from diesel fuel exposure negatively affected the NOx conversion. The type of soot and/or coke responsible for the inhibited NOx conversion did not contribute to the SCRF backpressure.
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