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Technical Paper

Cu/Zeolite SCR on High Porosity Filters: Laboratory and Engine Performance Evaluations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0897
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is expected to be used extensively in the U.S. for diesel vehicle NOx control. Much progress has been made on improving performance and reducing complexity of SCR systems for vehicles in the past several years. SCR system complexity can be reduced further by implementation of SCR-coated diesel particulate filters (SCRFs). In this system, a high porosity (> 50%) filter substrate is coated with an SCR formulation, ideally in the pores of the filter walls, so that the DPF and SCR functions can be combined into a single catalyst. Two state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite SCR formulations and three types of high porosity filter substrates were included in this study. Laboratory and engine-dynamometer tests were performed to measure NOx conversion under a variety of conditions to assess the impact of ammonia oxidation, inlet NO2/NOx ratio, ammonia/NOx ratio, oxygen level, space velocity, soot loading, and ammonia loading level.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-1282
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ammonia Slip Catalysts on Ammonia, N2O and NOX Emissions for Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1572
The use of urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising method for achieving U.S. Tier 2 diesel emission standards for NOx. To meet the Tier 2 standards for Particulate Matter (PM), a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) will likely be present and any ammonia (NH3) that is not consumed over an SCR catalyst would pass over the CDPF to make nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and/or oxides of nitrogen (NOx), or exit the exhaust system as NH3. N2O is undesirable due to its high greenhouse gas potential, while NOx production from the slipped NH3 would reduce overall system NOx conversion efficiency. This paper reviews certain conditions where NH3 slip past an SCR system may be a concern, looks at what would happen to this slipped NH3 over a CDPF, and evaluates the performance of various supplier NH3 slip catalysts under varied space velocities, temperatures and concentrations of NH3 and NOx.
Journal Article

Enhanced Durability of a Cu/Zeolite Based SCR Catalyst

2008-04-14
2008-01-1025
Passenger and light duty diesel vehicles will require up to 90% NOx conversion over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) to meet future Tier 2 Bin 5 standards. This accomplishment is especially challenging for low exhaust temperature applications that mostly operate in the 200 - 350°C temperature regime. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts formulated with Cu/zeolites have shown the potential to deliver this level of performance fresh, but their performance can easily deteriorate over time as a result of high temperature thermal deactivation. These high temperature SCR deactivation modes are unavoidable due to the requirements necessary to actively regenerate diesel particulate filters and purge SCRs from sulfur and hydrocarbon contamination. Careful vehicle temperature control of these events is necessary to prevent unintentional thermal damage but not always possible. As a result, there is a need to develop thermally robust SCR catalysts.
Journal Article

Detection, Origin and Effect of Ultra-Low Platinum Contamination on Diesel-SCR Catalysts

2008-10-06
2008-01-2488
This paper discusses the poisoning of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst by trace levels of platinum originating from an upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A diesel aftertreatment system consisting of a DOC, urea based SCR Catalyst and a DPF was aged and evaluated on a 6.4 liter diesel engine dynamometer. The SCR catalyst system consisted of an Fe-zeolite catalyst followed by a Cu-zeolite catalyst. After approximately 400 hours of engine operation at varied exhaust flow rates and temperatures, deactivation of the SCR catalyst was observed. A subsequent detailed investigation revealed that the Cu catalyst was not deactivated and the front half of the Fe-based catalyst showed severe deactivation. The deactivated portion of the catalyst showed high activity of NH3 conversion to NOx and N2O formation. The cause of the deactivation was identified to be the presence of trace Pt contamination.
Journal Article

Impact and Prevention of Ultra-Low Contamination of Platinum Group Metals on SCR Catalysts Due to DOC Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0627
Diesel aftertreatment systems configured with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of an urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst run the risk of precious metal contamination. During active diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration events, the DOC bed temperature can reach up to 850°C. Under these conditions, precious metal (especially Pt) can be volatized and then deposited on a downstream SCR catalyst. In this paper, the impact of ultra-low contamination of platinum group metals (PGM) on the SCR catalyst was studied. A method based on precious metal volatilization of a Pt-rich DOC at 850°C and under lean gas conditions was employed to contaminate downstream FeSCR and CuSCR formulations. The contamination resulted in poor NOx conversion (via NOx remake) and excessive N2O formation. The precious metal volatilization method was employed to screen various Pt/Pd based DOCs to avoid contamination of the downstream FeSCR.
Journal Article

Laboratory Study of Soot, Propylene, and Diesel Fuel Impact on Zeolite-Based SCR Filter Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0903
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been designed to reduce NOx with the assistance of an ammonia-based reductant. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have been designed to trap and eventually oxidize particulate matter (PM). Combining the SCR function within the wall of a high porosity particulate filter substrate has the potential to reduce the overall complexity of the aftertreatment system while maintaining the required NOx and PM performance. The concept, termed Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter (SCRF) was studied using a synthetic gas bench to determine the NOx conversion robustness from soot, coke, and hydrocarbon deposition. Soot deposition, coke derived from propylene exposure, and coke derived from diesel fuel exposure negatively affected the NOx conversion. The type of soot and/or coke responsible for the inhibited NOx conversion did not contribute to the SCRF backpressure.
Journal Article

Technical Advantages of Vanadium SCR Systems for Diesel NOx Control in Emerging Markets

2008-04-14
2008-01-1029
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising technology for diesel aftertreatment to meet NOx emissions targets in several countries. In established markets such as the US and Europe, zeolite SCR systems are expected to be used due to their ability to survive the exhaust gas temperatures seen in an active diesel particulate filter regeneration. In emerging markets where the fuel sulfur level may be as high as 2000 parts per million, zeolite SCR catalysts may have durability issues. In these markets, low sulfur fuel is needed overall to meet emissions standards and to avoid high sulfate emissions, but the aftertreatment system must be durable to high sulfur levels because there is a risk of exposure to high sulfur fuel. Also, emissions standards may be met without a DPF in some applications, so that the exhaust system would not see temperatures of 600°C or higher.
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