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Technical Paper

Parallel Computing of KIVA-4 Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement

2009-04-20
2009-01-0723
Parallel computing schemes were developed to enhance the computational efficiency of engine spray simulations with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Spray simulations have been shown to be grid dependent and thus fine mesh is often used to improve solution accuracy. In this study, dynamic mesh refinement adaptive to spray region was developed and parallelized in KIVA-4. The change of cell and node numbers and the local characteristics in the dynamic mesh refinement posed difficulties in developing efficient parallel computing schemes to achieve low communication overhead and good load balance. The present strategy executed AMR on one processor with data scattering among processors following the adaptation, and performed AMR every ten computational timesteps for enhanced parallel performance. The re-initialization was required and performed at the minimized cost.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

DISI Spray Modeling Using Local Mesh Refinement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0967
The accurate prediction of fuel sprays is critical to engine combustion and emissions simulations. A fine computational mesh is often required to better resolve fuel spray dynamics and vaporization. However, computations with a fine mesh require extensive computer time. This study developed a methodology that uses a locally refined mesh in the spray region. Such adaptive mesh refinement will enable greater resolution of the liquid-gas interaction while incurring only a small increase in the total number of computational cells. The present study uses an h-refinement adaptive method. A face-based approach is used for the inter-level boundary conditions. The prolongation and restriction procedure preserves conservation of properties in performing grid refinement/coarsening. The refinement criterion is based on the mass of spray liquid and fuel vapor in each cell. The efficiency and accuracy of the present adaptive mesh refinement scheme is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of a Spray-Guided DISI Combustion System Concept

2003-10-27
2003-01-3105
An innovative stratified-charge DISI combustion concept has been developed using a mixture formation method referred to as Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC). This paper describes the combustion system concept and an initial assessment of it, performed on a single-cylinder test engine and through CFD modeling. This VISC concept utilizes the vortex naturally formed on the outside of a wide spray cone that is enhanced by bulk gas flow control and piston crown design. This vortex transports fuel vapor from the spray cone to the spark gap. This system allows a late injection timing and produces a well-confined mixture, which together provide an improved compromise between combustion phasing and combustion efficiency over typical wall-guided systems. Testing results indicate an 18% fuel consumption reduction, compared with a baseline PFI engine, over a drive cycle (neglecting cold start and transient effects).
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0550
This paper describes the CFD modeling work conducted for the development and research of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) system that demonstrated superior fuel economy benefits. The Ford in-house CFD code and simulation methodology were employed. In the VISC concept a vortex forms on the outside of the wide cone angle spray and transports fuel vapor from the spray to the spark plug gap. A spray model for an outward-opening pintle injector used in the engine was developed, tested, and implemented in the code. Modeling proved to be effective for design optimization and analysis. The CFD simulations revealed important physical phenomena associated with the spray-guided combustion system mixing preparation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of a Light Stratified-Charge Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0546
In the effort to improve combustion of a Light-load Stratified-Charge Direct-Injection (LSCDI) combustion system, CFD modeling, together with optical engine diagnostics and single cylinder engine testing, was applied to resolve some key technical issues. The issues associated with stratified-charge (SC) operation are combustion stability, smoke emission, and NOx emission. The challenges at homogeneous-charge operation include fuel-air mixing homogeneity at partial load operation, smoke emission and mixing homogeneity at low speed WOT, and engine knock tendency reduction at medium speed WOT operations. In SC operation, the fuel consumption is constrained with the acceptable smoke emission level and stability limit. With the optimization of piston design and injector specification, the smoke emission can be reduced. Concurrently, the combustion stability window and fuel consumption can be also significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Light Stratified-Charge DISI Combustion System for a Family of Engines With Upfront CFD Coupling With Thermal and Optical Engine Experiments

2004-03-08
2004-01-0545
A new Light Stratified-Charge Direct Injection (LSC DI) spark ignition combustion system concept was developed at Ford. One of the new features of the LSC DI concept is to use a ‘light’ stratified-charge operation window ranging from the idle operation to low speed and low load. A dual independent variable cam timing (DiVCT) mechanism is used to increase the internal dilution for emissions control and to improve engine thermal efficiency. The LSC DI concept allows a large relaxation in the requirement for the lean after-treatment system, but still enables significant fuel economy gains over the PFI base design, delivering high technology value to the customer. In addition, the reduced stratified-charge window permits a simple, shallow piston bowl design that not only benefits engine wide-open throttle performance, but also reduces design compromises due to compression ratio, DiVCT range and piston bowl shape constraints.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Air Mixing Homogeneity and Performance Improvements of a Stratified-Charge DISI Combustion System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2656
A CFD based design optimization methodology was developed and adopted to the development of a stratified-charge direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) combustion system. Two key important issues for homogeneous charge operation, volumetric efficiency and mixing homogeneity, are addressed. The intake port is optimized for improved volumetric efficiency with a CFD based numerical optimization tool. It is found that insufficient fuel-air mixing is the root cause for the low rated power of most DISI engines. The fuel-air mixing in-homogeneity is due to the interaction between intake flow and injected fuel spray. An injector mask design was proposed to alleviate such interaction, then to improve air-fuel mixture homogeneity. It was then confirmed with dynamometer testing that the optimized design improved engine output and at the same time had lower soot and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Piston Surface Wetting in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2655
Development and research of a stratified-charge direct-injection SI combustion system was carried out at Ford. This paper presents the multidimensional engine CFD modeling analysis of mixture formation and piston surface wetting under the stratified-charge conditions. The effect of various design and operating parameters including piston shape, spray cone angle, swirl ratio, injection timing, engine speed and load on charge stratification and piston-wetting due to spray impingement were studied. The results led to design changes that warranted improvement of engine functions. Of particular interest, the model was shown to be capable to predict piston surface wetting and a qualitative correlation was found between the amount of the remaining liquid fuel on the piston surface and the engine-out smoke number.
Technical Paper

Understanding of Intake Cam Phasing Effects on the Induction and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1947
Variable Cam Timing (VCT) has been proven to be a very effective method in PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines for improved fuel economy and combustion stability, and reduced emissions. In DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines, VCT is applied in both stratified-charge and homogeneous charge operating modes. In stratified-charge mode, VCT is used to reduce NOx emission and improve combustion stability. In homogeneous charge mode, the function of VCT is similar to that in PFI engines. In DISI engine, however, the VCT also affects the available fuel-air mixing time. This paper focuses on VCT effects on the induction process and the fuel-air mixing homogeneity in a DISI engine. The detailed induction process with large exhaust-intake valve overlap has been investigated with CFD modeling. Seven characteristic sub-processes during the induction have been identified. The associated mechanism for each sub-process is also investigated.
Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Turbocharger Performance on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0920
For diesel engines to meet current and future emissions levels, the amount of EGR required to reach these levels has increased dramatically. This increased EGR has posed big challenges for conventional turbocharger technology to meet the higher emissions requirements while maintaining or improving other vehicle attributes, to the extent that some OEMs resort to multiple turbocharger configurations. These configurations can include parallel, series sequential, or parallel - series turbocharger systems, which would inevitably run into other issues, such as cost, packaging, and thermal loss, etc. This study, as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (USDoE) sponsored research program, is focused on the experimental evaluation of the emission and performance of a modern diesel engine with an advanced single stage turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio on Stratified-Charge Direct- Injection Gasoline Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0100
Charge cooling due to fuel evaporation in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine typically allows for an increased compression ratio relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines. It is clear that this results in a thermal efficiency improvement at part load for homogenous-charge DISI engines. However, very little is known regarding the effect of compression ratio on stratified charge operation. In this investigation, DISI combustion data have been collected on a single cylinder engine equipped with a variable compression ratio feature. The results of experiments performed in stratified-charge direct injection (SCDI) mode show that despite its over-advanced phasing, thermal conversion efficiency improves with higher compression ratios. This benefit is quantified and dissected through an efficiency analysis. Furthermore, since the engine was equipped with both wall-guided DI and PFI systems, direct comparisons are made at part load for fuel consumption and emissions.
Journal Article

Spray Pattern Optimization for the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1916
A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
Journal Article

Applications of CFD Modeling in GDI Engine Piston Optimization

2009-06-15
2009-01-1936
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
Journal Article

Modeling the Cold Start of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1493
Optimization of the engine cold start is critical for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, since the emissions during the first 20 seconds of the cold start constitute more than 80% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for the entire EPA FTP75 drive cycle. However, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine cold start optimization is very challenging due to the rapidly changing engine speed, cold thermal environment and low cranking fuel pressure. One approach to reduce HC emissions for DISI engines is to adopt retarded spark so that engines generate high heat fluxes for faster catalyst light-off during the cold idle. This approach typically degrades the engine combustion stability and presents additional challenges to the engine cold start. This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address these challenges for the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost engine cold start.
Journal Article

Development and Optimization of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Combustion System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1494
Recently, Ford Motor Company announced the introduction of EcoBoost engines in its Ford, Lincoln and Mercury vehicles as an affordable fuel-saving option to millions of its customers. The EcoBoost engine is planned to start production in June of 2009 in the Lincoln MKS. The EcoBoost engine integrates direct fuel injection with turbocharging to significantly improve fuel economy via engine downsizing. An application of this technology bundle into a 3.5L V6 engine delivers up to 12% better drive cycle fuel economy and 15% lower emissions with comparable torque and power as a 5.4L V8 PFI engine. Combustion system performance is key to the success of the EcoBoost engine. A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the EcoBoost engine combustion system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel Droplet Impact on Heated Surfaces Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0291
The impact of fuel droplets on heated surfaces is of great importance in internal combustion engines. In engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the drop-wall interaction is usually considered by using models derived from experimental data and correlations rather than direct simulations. This paper presented a numerical method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which can directly simulate the impact process of fuel droplets impinging on solid surfaces. The SPH method is a Lagrangian meshfree particle method. It discretizes fluid into a number of SPH particles and governing equations of fluid into a set of particle equations. By solving the particle equations, the movement of particles can be obtained, which represents the fluid flows. The SPH method is able to simulate the large deformation and breakup of liquid drops without using additional interface tracking techniques.
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